Civil War Journal  of Herbert E. Cotes of New Woodstock, Madison County, NY



8th Kans. Co. I

Cotes Family History

The Journal




Title Page Image - Page 1

Herbert E. Cotes
	New Woodstock
		Madison Co.
April 20th 1862	New York

(page 1)
H. E. Cotes
	Leavenworth City
Apr. 20th, 62
  These pages are devoted to the 
recording of events as they transpire 
and of the thoughts that naturally 
occur and recur from day to day in 
my mind for my own personal 
perusal in after days 
when conflicts cease.  
              H. E. Cotes
(page 2 – blank)

(page 3)
Saturday Apr. 19 1862
   Rather of a cool disagreeable 
day. Wind in north. The Spring is 
backward. Farmers have not yet 
finished their spring work. The 
grass has been green a long while 
and the leaves are just beginning 
to show themselves in a partial 
light. Quite an excitement prevails 
in the minds of the company in respect 
to the scene presented as Billy the 
Commissary returned from the 
Fort. Is that he was dead drunk 
unable to walk - unconscious. 
An unfortunate state for a soldier 
who has an office to be in inasmuch 
that it takes his stripes off. The 
boys arrested for interfering with 
the nigger dance last Monday 
night also are in a very preca-
rious situation, more and more 

(page 4)
is proven against them everyday.  
Wash Whitehill and Sergeant 
Grenlee especially are liable to wear 
a ball and chain for 60 or 80 days. 
Ed’s position is more favorable. 
   The theatre is the same monot-
onous performance over and over.

Sunday Apr. 20, 1862
   A beautiful Sabbath morn. It 
seems as though all nature was 
awake with praises to God. The air 
so pure and refreshing from 
the North as to inspire one with 
a new degree of Cheerfulness 
and adoration. Attended dinner 
services as usual at the Methodist 
Church both in morn and Eve 
and the Sunday school too. For 
the first time since I came to 
this City of corrupt morals I 
visited the Bible class and

(page 5) 
participated in the exercises. I 
feel like renewing my energies
to live more consecrated and 
devoted to the great I AM.—
   He who sustains me from day 
to day and protects me from 
all harm. This is Easter Sunday 
a day of frolicsome indulgences 
for the Dutch. In the Eve they 
had a school exhibition which 
is reported this morn to have been 
most excellent. All the boys who 
helped to destroy that saloon are 
under arrest and in the Guard 
House. They are Evan Hibbs, Kerry Ken-
dal, Mulnix, Hughes, and two or three 
others.  Tregers Co. received march
ing orders to report themselves to 
Fort Riley. I desire very much to 
stay here for now. I am getting 
so much acquainted as to enjoy myself.

(page 6)
Monday Apr. 21, 1862
  How beautiful the sun sheds his 
dazzling light! How cheering all 
nature appears! How sweetly the 
birds sing! In fact every thing 
appears cheerful. Went to the Post 
to help the Co. Commissary draw 
rations. The trees are about half 
leaved out. In the afternoon those 
implicated in breaking up that 
Saloon on the river were ordered 
up to the Fort upon which nearly
a whole Co went. Gen Sturgis 
released all of them upon hearing 
the true state of the case and 
fined Bomgrisser for selling 
liquor to the soldiers. Bomgriss-
er had better kept still.
  Everything seems to work in my 
favor as regards promotion 
and I seem to have in possess

(page 7)
ion the respect and confidence 
of superior officers. It is my ear-
nest intention and wish that I 
may ever merit the approbation 
of all. I retired feeling satisfied 
with the events of the day. 

Tuesday Apr. 22, 1862
   Really warm and sunny again
Loitered about all the forenoon. 
Tregis Co. started for Ft. Riley. I 
reckon they will grumble some be-
fore they get there - not being used 
to walking. It took them a long 
time to get ready. The Capt’s and 
Lieut wife would not go by stage 
but preferred to ride in the gov-
ernment wagon on top of the 
goods. I was sorry to have them 
leave for we all agreed well.
  In the afternoon very agreeable 
to my wishes I was detailed to 

(page 8)
write in the Provost Marshall’s genl 
office. I think now I shall en-
joy myself better. The kidnappers 
are doing much toward disturb
ing the quietude of the darkeys.
  An old farmer out in the coun-
try has quite of number of them 
working for him. He was away 
a few nights ago. The Darkeys 
expected to be attacked so they 
armed themselves with muskets 
and corn cutter. As expected the 
Kidnapers came. As one of the 
rogues stuck his arm through 
the partly opened door, with a 
light in hand to enable (h)is 
colleagues to see, one of the 
daring darkeys struck it with 
his corn cutter and nearly severed 
it, at the same time another 
one fired and as he suppose

(page 9)
hit the mark. The desperadoes 
fled. The man who shot the 
school master night before last 
has not been found. The victim 
fled as soon as he perpetrated 
the deed. Duke is the name 
of the deceased and Smith the 
name of the murderer. Old man 
Grunler was drunk again, which 
will truly take off his Stripes, 
so the Capt. said.

Wednesday, Apr. 23, 1862
   The sky obscured with clouds accom-
panied with a cool mist which makes 
it unpleasant to be out. I had a 
considerable writing to do. It is 
pleasant to be here. In the eve 
attended the sociable at Mr. Palmers 
in South Leavenworth. It seemed 
as though I was out of my place 
to be associated with such a 

(p. 10)
throng of citizens, ladies and 
gents, in such a capacity. A great 
many were present all of refined 
morals and good habits. The scene 
was a pleasant one to enjoy 
for a change. Returned to my 
bunk at 11 o’clock.

Thursday Apr. 24, 1862
   Cold and disagreeable again, yet 
sunshiny. Very dull all day. 
   Did nothing in the writing 
line for there was nothing to do.
Read newspapers most all the 
while and was forcibly struck 
by the daring deeds accomplished 
in warfare as well as with 
the narrow escapes. From present 
appearance and indications it 
seems that the greatest and 
most earnestly contended battles 
remains yet to be fought 

(page 11)
and that on an old Revolu-
tionary battlefield where Lord 
Cornwallis surrendered and gave 
up his hands and implements 
of bloodshed to Washington. It 
may be possible that Jeff or 
Johnson will yet surrender 
their all to McClelland 
or some other of our Generals.
   In the evening attended the 
American Theatre again. I 
was at one particular time 
during the performances ren-
dered sad by the apparently life-
like appearance of Belle Oceana 
as the one singing the “Mocking 
Bird. No color was in her cheeks 
save that manufactured, her 
form was altogether slim 
lean and lank, worn out, her 
posture far from erect -her voice 

(page 12)
tremblingly weak on account 
of poor lungs, she being una-
ble to utter a clear perfect sound. 
   All in all the entertainment
was better that before when I 
was there.

Friday Apr. 25, 1862
   Exceedingly pleasant and balmy 
day and O. how dusty.  No writing 
to do. Was consequently very 
idle all day having slept all 
the afternoon.
   In the evening attended the
Singing School. Before I went 
I felt real downspirited and bad 
but need I say that when I returned 
my drooping spirits were greatly 
revived and instead of taking 4
or 5 of those cephatic Pills to cheer
me I retired happy and light 

(page 13)
   Mr. Ford and Wheeler started 
for Fort Riley by stage. The 
weather is exceedingly favorable for the 
farmers to get in their crops.

Saturday Apr. 26, 1862
   Continued balmy and pleasant 
but O such clouds of dust as 
sweep and fly through the sts! 
Enough to strangle one almost. 
   Im very much pressed with 
writing. No news of importance 
worth relating. The 75 hour 
walker is still going along 
on the same old pace, he has 
nearly “gin’ out or had last eve 
when I saw him. It almost 
made me sick to see him, so 
lean and lank and fatigued 
he appeared. Retired very early 
on account of ill health. 
Hope I shall feel better.

(page 14)
Sunday Apr. 27, 1862. 
   Very warm and sultry in morn 
as well as windy. The dust flew 
in perfect clouds. But before night 
the weather changed cooler and 
in the eve we were blessed with 
a more refreshing shower. Atten
ded church as usual. In the eve 
a 1st. Lieut. of Artillery preached 
how plain spoken he was, and 
how he put it down to the half way 
. . .  Took supper with 
Smiths. The Sunday school is 
very interesting indeed and well they 
did as well as the Bible class.
  Hughes and one of Blocks men 
had the coldness the audacity to 
demand with drawn sabers the 
money of a quiet civilian walking 
leisurely along for which they were 
both arrested and tied fastly.

(page 15)
   I wonder why I don’t hear from 
my friends more frequently. I can 
stand it if they can. Old Davy 
Goodmin at last has died. He 
was found late in the eve lifeless 
in an old saw mill below here. 
What a life in inebriety and 
wretchedness he has lived having 
from his infancy been addicted 
to vice of the lowest kind - a 
curse to all he was with, to the world 
in general.

Monday Apr 29(sic), 1862
   Made out part of a muster Roll 
and waited the rest of the day to 
finish it; but the proper authority 
did not come. The shower of last 
night refreshed everything.  How nice 
and invigorating the air all day.
   In the eve I felt most miserable 
mean and blue.

(page 16)
Tuesday April 29, 1862
   Again beautifully pleasant.  Wrote 
all day as hard as I could put 
in - finished making out the pay 
rolls. How the recent order has 
made the shoulder straps “skedaddle.”
   In the eve we were happily 
startled by the news of our troops 
having possession of N.O. 
Now we can flank them. Why 
will they prolong the war.
   Attended the theater again. It 
is getting to be an old thing. 
   I am feeling quite well and 
cute again. Trade is brisk. Build
ing is going rapidly on and 
this goes to prove that prosperity 
reigns. The report of the capture 
of N.O. is confirmed.  It is nuts 
the Rebels now. They will flee 
where ... (ink ran out)

(page 17)
Wednesday Apr. 30, 1862
   A nice farming breeze from the 
West which enlivens one with 
joy and light heartedness. Not much 
writing to do. In the forenoon 
we were mustered for pay. It was 
short yet well conducted. Now all 
heads are joyous with the idea 
of again being replenished with 
the “green Bucks.” Am feeling much 
better every day. In the eve attended 
the social at Mrs. Palmers. I had 
a real good time. How pleasant 
to spend the evening in such 
a way, it recalls to mind past 
days and destroys the soldier 
life for a spell thus rendering 
monotiny mixed a little. I 
am really enjoying myself 
and like the society life much 
better than expected.

(page 18)
Thursday May 1, 1862
   And at this beautiful day came 
gentle May. The cheery month, with 
her smiles and vernal winds to 
chase away the tears and chilliness 
of April.  May, month of blossoms 
welcome! Corporal Bonta from 
Hurds Co. come in the afternoon. 
   He reports residences in Mo. as 
very forsaken in as much as cattle 
sheep and hogs run and occupy 
dwellings once joyous and happy 
with loving families. Furniture is 
left in some instances to the mercy 
of all - the farmers have gone. Where!
 to aid the wicked Rebellion. Corn 
in large quantities remains un-
gathered as well stacks of wheat 
and oats remain untouched. 
Desolation prevade the land.

(page 19)
Friday May 2, 1862
   Still warm sunny and bright 
and really pleasant. The air is 
cool and refreshing. A dull day 
with me for I have had nothing 
to do, I spent much time in 
sober reflection and meditation 
and in the evening to pass 
away time went to the singing 
rehearsal of the Sunday School. 
Returned and retired as usual. 
   All are anxious for pay but no pay 
comes yet.

Saturday May 3d 1862
   The weather unchangeable. But 
very little done in way of writing 
for nothing to do. In eve took 
a long walk, returning via the 
Catholic Church.  We stopped a 
few minutes for there was to be 
services. How peculiarly struck 

(page 20)
I was to see such Jew like for-
mality, each member having dip
ped their fingers into a vase of 
something, water I suppose and 
then touched their foreheads, breast 
and mouth. Soon we left and 
returned to quarters. I felt un
commonly well and like raising 
a breeze of fun How many 
are glad that tomorrow is 
Sunday, are all?
   The old practices of 56 and 57 are 
being indulged in in the way
of kidnapping which now is 
carried to extensively on to be 
let alone by us the protectors 
of the rights of the people. 
   Not long since a band of kid-
nappers entered the house of one 
not far from here at 12 o’clock 
midnight, demanded of the 

(page 21)
inmates what negroes he had 
if any, saying that if he de-
ceived him in cold blood he 
should die - then searched the 
entire house, having uncovered 
while in bed the two daughters 
fastly sleeping to make sure 
their business. None could be 
found so off they went. It is 
a shame, a degrading shame 
that such outrageous proceed
ings will be allowed. Extensive 
search should be kept, all 
means possible resorted to to 
catch the unhuman wretches. 
   Other instances of the same 
nature might be mentioned 
but nothing new would be 
revealed. This is a strange 
city inhabited by a strange 

(p. 22)
Sunday May 4, 1862 
  How cool the air, so pure, on 
account of the little sprinkle 
of rain of last night.  Attended 
church as usual, not at the 
Methodist for there was no preaching 
but to the Congregationalist where 
a most superb and excellent sermon 
was delivered to a large congregation. 
   Some of the boys went on a 
walk into the fields, milking 
cows etc. Such tricks as are 
cut up when one is sleeping 
down in quarters. One was played 
on Brown. Now they have quite 
a fashion of filling a pipe 
with powder and tobacco putting 
good pure tobacco on top then 
invited their friends to smoke 
with them at the same 
time. interesting him with 

(p. 23)
some story. Till the flash takes 
place, then a ha, ha, ha in good 
earnest. In eve Brooks Spenser 
attended church but who they 
were with I will not say, for 
it would be a disgrace to these pages.

Monday May 5th 1862
   Beautifully bright. In the morn 
rumors of a serious and desponding 
nature were afloat till late in the 
afternoon gloom was in the 
countenance of many, but a 
telegram from Yorktown from 
Maj Gen McClelland received 
about 8 o’clock dispelled all des-
pondency and gloominess for it 
announced in bold terms that 
the rebels had evacuated their 
strongholds, their breastworks, 
all their fortifications, and 

(p. 24)
left their guns, cannons 100 of 
them behind besides ammunition 
etc. and that our whole Cavalry 
was in hot pursuit, accompanied 
by heavy horse and light artillery 
supported by infantry, our gun 
boats having hastened up York 
River - in consequence of all of 
which a tremendous and en-
thusiastic applause echoed from 
every heart accompanied by 
volley after volley of musketry. 
The wildest conseternation imag-
inable was occasioned. Keg after 
keg of lager box after box of cigars 
were devoured in fond remembrance 
and honor of the brilliant 
achievement. Favorable news 
also from Corinth was received 
all of which created joys unex-
pressable, but and untold. 

(p. 25)
   I hardly know how to account 
for such a movement when 
all about was so strongly and 
securely defended. Was a spirit 
of inability felt on their part 
to hold their immense fortifica
tions the strongest ever con-
structed without finally losing 
all as they have now, besides 
numerous lives? Where have they 
fled to Richmond? Nothing there 
have they to defend themselves 
with against our ponderous guns, 
for all was removed to Yorktown. 
Whither will they flee? Time 
will develop all -go where 
they will. We are ever ready 
and efficient. I feel grateful 
to think of our successes, to 
the Director of all things 
Praises to him forever and ever.

(p. 26)
Tuesday May 6th 1862
 Again cheerful and gay over
head and beneath. Spend the day 
very busily writing making out 
reports post Return etc. and in 
attending to other duties. I have 
felt very fine and ambitious.
   The order reducing Serg. Gren-
lee was read publicly causing him 
to color up and his wife a fine 
lady to mourn in account of 
the disgrace.  The Col is quite 
unwell and feeble.  What beau-
tiful evenings we are having so 
much more pleasant than the 
days for the morn shines as lus-
trously and the hot sun does not 
scorch. I don’t know but 
Wall Martin will go into spasms 
if he don’t get the Sarg position 
retired in good season.

(p. 27)
Wednesday May 7th 1862
   Warm and sultry in the extreme 
for this season of the year. Time 
passes pleasantly and agreeably.
Rain is needed for the grass. 
I am waiting in suspense for 
a letter from my dear Jennie, 
and from Mrs. Green--they will 
come after a while.  It seems as 
though the present war could not 
last much longer, cheering news 
from all sources greets our ears. 
Success after success is achieved.  
If the Rebels would accept of 
the advice of the Minister from 
France and at once yield it 
would benefit her on all homes 
on earth: but whether she will 
or not I can not tell, they seem 
inclined to continue on as long 
as they are able to keep together 

(p. 28)
thinking that when we 
have conquered all the creeks 
and rivers and obliged to meet 
them in the open field face to 
face, they will be able to over-
power us, but how unreason-
able for how will they subsist 
any length of time without 
the aid of some shipments.
   Attended the social again 
which was rather dry and 
noninteresting. Very fine evenings 
for them much pleasanter than 
the day. Retired very late indeed.
   How dusty the streets are, I 
should think the merchants would 
hire a sprinkler to save their 
goods from being soiled but thats 
their look not mine. I’m 
feeling right well and cheer-
ful besides ambitious.

(p. 29)
Thursday May 8th 1862
   Disagreeably warm and sultry. 
Lounged about all day slept 
some etc. Mr. Grenlee who was 
reduced to the ranks for drunkenness 
in the afternoon apparently was 
affected with the times. He de-
livered up all his papers to his 
disconsolate wife, his watch to 
his boys bade them all good bye, 
hastened to the river bank was 
about to throw himself in when 
his boy caught and rescued him 
when to the guard house he 
was carried where now he is. 
   Ruined man. I am sorry 
for him and his family.  Re-
tired in good season. I want 
to get some letters. When will 
I. I wonder have all for-
gotten me?

(page 30)
Friday May 9, 1862
   Still uncomfortable and warm. 
Loitered about as usual in the 
forenoon, but in the afternoon 
printed all the weeklies and 
part of the dailies. It never 
does no hurt to know how 
do anything. I felt real pearky 
in the evening uncommonly 
lively - roamed about town 
went to the sing over to Mr. 
Haskels from there to the 
theater where I laughed my-
self almost to chocking and 
till my side were sore. I slept 
in the Provost Marshals office 
for Mr Corker wished to go 
out after a kidnapper who 
was going to try to kidnap from 
a friend of his. I was very 
tired and sleepy.

(p. 31)
Saturday May 10, 1862
   Appearance of rain. O, I do 
hope it will rain for it would 
be so much cooler and pleas
anter. It is a hard job to keep 
comfortable. In afternoon as 
usual I printed some more. 
   The prospects are strong of our 
Reg being ordered to Indian 
Territory. Certainly we will leave 
here for the Col will die if he 
don’t and has made applica-
tion to be removed.  The boys 
are totally disgusted because 
they don’t get their pay.  It 
is a shame that so, but 
can’t be helped we are totally 
dependent on U.S. I sat and 
visited all the eve down at the 
door with St. Robinson till 
bed time.

(p. 32)
Sunday May 11, 1862
   How warm! Arise as early as 
usual wash myself and then 
instead of going to church I 
wrote a letter to my Jennie. 
  I had a right good time (In 
afternoon went to Sunday School 
as usual it was interesting and 
instructive. Reviewed in medita-
tion my past life, meditated 
upon the future etc. Did not 
go the Dutch Theatre as I was
invited but attended church) 
   Staid long with Smith. For 
the first time since I left 
Ills. I slept on a soft bed. 
It did seem so good and cosy 
as well as pliable and consoling. 
All kept pretty quiet for it 
was too warm to move about 
and keep comfortable.

(page 33)
Monday, May 12, 1862
   Oh! how warm and sultry 
all is dull here in the city 
excepting business which is 
uncommonly lively. Nights are 
the time for enjoyment. I 
don’t like to go to bed. I ate
to plates of ice cream for the 
first this season - quite cool
ing to ones physical institution. 
In eve felt as lonesome as 
Noahs Arc therefore romand 
about accordingly having fi
nally wandered over to Smiths 
were I stopped after a while 
went out walking and talk 
over with delight olden time 
and older trials all com
bined, I am quite well 
now. Retired rather late 
as might be expected.

(p. 34)
Tuesday May 13, 1862.
   Old “sol” still showers down 
his warm rays of light in effu-
sion, scorching the heads of 
the street pedestrians in spite 
of all their feelings to the con-
trary. Lazy fellow I am, a per-
fect do nothing except when 
I am obliged to work, sleep 
a little sit up a little and walk 
a little. Cleveland the Jayhaw-
ker is dead. He was first discov-
ered by Lieut. Walker crossing the 
Kansas River at DeSoto and followed 
to Osawatomie where the Lt. called 
upon Col Judson who furnished him 
with a detachment of ten men who 
found C in a house in town. 
Sergt Morris went to the door and 
asked for him. When the Jayhawker 
came forward heavily armed 

(p. 35)
and acknowledged his identity. The 
Sergeant informed him that it 
was his purpose to arrest him. 
When Cleveland replied that the 
thing could not be done - and 
that if in he had never given himself 
up and never would and was 
afraid of no man, the Sergeant 
however have been detailed for 
his duty told him he proposed 
to accomplish it dead or alive. 
When to Clevelands boast inquiry 
as to the number of men with him 
the Sergeant replied “ten” and 
to “C’s” boast that he himself had a 
greater number, the Sergeant re-
joined that if he resisted he would 
be shot, Cleveland then said that 
if the Serg’t would call a Lt. he 
would go with them provided 
they would accompany him 

(p. 36)
to a friend’s a short distance 
from the town. Lt. Walker 
then coming up, the party hastily 
all mounted and after proceeding 
all short distance C endeavored 
to make his escape by breaking from 
the guards into the woods. Reaching 
the edge of the timber he dis-
mounted throwing away a revolver 
from which he had discharged 
five shots at his pursuers without 
effect. Drawing another pistol 
he prepared to fire again when 
Private Johnson shot him: The 
ball striking the right shoulder 
passing obliqely through the 
heart under the third rib. 
   His body was taken to town 
delivered to the citizens among 
whom he had so long been a 
terror and this ends the 

(p. 37)
last chapter in the life of 
the desperado Cleveland. The 
circumstance is of his final 
arrest and death is owing to 
the strenuous efforts of Gen 
Blunt who upon his arrival 
and appointment to the com-
mand of this District immediately 
resorted to effectual methods of 
Capturing the demons of Kansas.
Gen Blunt is determined to “rid” 
the State of all such desperadoes 
and will I trust in due time.
   The death of C brings sadness 
to many hearts while joy and 
gladness to others. Everybody 
where engaged in honorable or 
malicious pursuits has his friends 
who advocate all done in 
good earnest but who can 
sanction the deeds of Cleveland.

(p. 38)
Wednesday May 14, 62
   Scattered all over the floor 
lying loose in chairs and tables 
covering our sanctum table so 
thick that it might have been 
scraped up by handsful, was the 
dust of yesterday and the day be-
fore; aye and the day before that. 
Dust heaps accumulate before 
show windows, eclipsing the mnds. 
and the laces and ribbons etc 
set out to attract the attention of 
purchasers, and dust in the eyes of 
pedestrians in the streets. Dust 
flying in such clouds that we 
couldn’t see across the way, coming
in at the windows and doors & 
leaving us in doubt as to whether 
we had better close the aforesaid 
and smother in the opressive heat 
or leave them open and choke 

(page 39)
with dust. People looked with 
their hats pulled down, as though 
they had been in a Baltimore riot, 
and their spring styles had collided 
with fragmentary paving stones! 
After all the wind was doing lit-
erally what many people are stri-
ving to accomplish figuratively.
   So it was all day long. In the 
eve, as usual attended the Ladies 
Social. Quite a co. congregated do-
nated their little, then promenaded 
with their ladies till nearly time 
for retiring homeward when all 
concluded to pay the ice cream 
saloon a call and did having 
done justice to ice cream, can-
dies, cakes, soda, water etc. in a
gentlemanly like manner. I 
really enjoyed myself -no mis-
take about it.

(page 40)
Thursday May 15 62
   The morn dawned clear warm 
dusty and sultry as usual: but 
the night paid us a call rain 
poured in torrents, causing all 
to spring upwards with double 
vigor. We rec’d our pay and how 
soon all the boys scattered as 
soon as their green bucks were 
safely in pocket. The Capt. gave us
permission to be out till Revelles 
this morn saying that if any 
were found drunk in the Guard 
house they must lay for one week.
 Wrote all day long making out 
monthly Returns of the Reg. In 
eve though had a social time 
eating cake and cream soda 
pop etc. Retired but could 
not sleep for I went to 
early to my couch.  

(page 41)
   The caloric of yesterday was opp-
ressive and ice cream and 
juleps were in demand until 
the water from the higher regions 
“soused us.” People began to think 
seriously of throwing aside their 
winter fabrics, doffing their military 
and other stiles and going into 
lightness generally. Leaving appear-
ances out the question a shady 
street corner was altogether pref-
erable: But as it was the aforesaid 
appearances precluding this. I for 
one sat in the window and read 
Kanes Artic Voyages, in the 
rain, endeavor to Keep Cool. 
But not even the discriptions of 
congealed mercury and snow 
fields, nor graphic pictures of
walruses in the ice flows could 
banish the reality that the 

(page 42)
Summer days are upon us 
and that the mercury is like the 
rebellion going up. 
   How many do get married! 
   It is the way of the world and 
has been since Eve blushed to 
Adam in the leafy bowers of Eden.
   Our friends branch out so fast 
upon the sea of matrimony that 
it puzzles one to find congratula-
tions for the transition.
   I can but wish to Charlie and 
his fair bride all due prosperity 
with happiness flitting like summer 
clouds around their day of life 
and the fair sunshine of mutual 
trust and ease beaming in 
them even yet when its twilight 
comes. A life of extreme joy 
and prosperity be theirs until
their share is run in this world.

(page 43)
Friday May 16, 1862
   Muggy and when the sun shine 
and when it didn’t shine extreme-
ly warm, only had a little writing 
to do in the morning. the rest 
of the day rambled about etc. un-
easy as a human being could be.
   I am really dainty since I 
received my pay. Some of the boys ready
have spent all they had or lost 
it. The news in the evening of 
the surplus troops in Ks. having 
been ordered to Miss struck fa-
vorable our boys yet the prospects 
etc. for our going is very slim.
   The idea of going to the Indian 
Territory does not strike my 
fancy. I had rather fight 
the genuine white scoundrels 
who should know and do know 
what is just.

(page 44)
Saturday May 17 62
   Really cool and disagreeable so 
much so that I had a fire 
in my room. Very indolent
all day. In eve went to theater 
from there at an early hour to bed.

Sunday May 18 62
   Pleasant and cool as one could 
wish. Attended Sabbath School 
and heard a class recite. After 
Sunday school we staid and 
sung. I took tea with Smith – 
had something real good. 
Went to church in eve from 
their home then somewhere else. 
   I felt uncommonly good 
about night, like dancing 
but I did not dance much 
for it was Sunday you know 
thats the reason.

(page 45)
Monday May 19, 1862 
   Cloudy and cool. I went to 
bed at 1 o’clock in the fore-
noon or rather layed down to 
rest a little and fell asleep 
and did not wake till 1/2 
past 4 in the afternoon. This 
passed the day.

Tuesday May 20, 1862
   Detailed as Sergeant of Guard 
once more by my comment to make 
the duty lighter on the other Sergts. 
I did not understand the system-
atic way of doing guard duty now 
a days. Therefore I make a great 
many mistakes but I’ll come 
to it. It rained most all day 
and oh! how muddy and dismal 
it was but what should gladden 
my heart but a letter from Jennie 
about dark. How good it made 

(page 46)
me feel to hear once more from 
her. I slept till 12 o’clock then got 
up and staid up till morn. The 
moon shone faintly reflecting a 
glistening shadow across the river
that tended more to make us 
think it was really lonesome 
than pleasant. -the stars shone 
too occasionally. I was not 
much sleepy. I thought of many 
things in succession though of no 
particular thing seriously. 
   The sleeping sentinels on each 
side of me as I walk to and fro 
across the room lent an aspect 
that fairly remembered me to a 
dream of fancy flickerings between 
sleep and wide awake. I needed 
some fun & could not help it. 
Yet time passed pleasantly 
and fastly. 

(p. 47)
   Sammy Hibbs and Jim Brooks 
started home on furlough of 20 
days. It will do Homesick Jim 
good I think.  I wish I knew where 
we were going. Now that we are 
no more the Guards of Kansas, 
to the Indian Country I think.

Wednesday May 21, 1862
   The weather is again salutrious 
and inviting. The long spell of 
rain has wonderfully invigorated 
all nature. The grass is so green 
the air so pure everything is so 
pure changed that one is almost surprised. 
I worked all day correcting a 
mistake made in the letterbooks,
someone having changed them from 
one pigeon hole to another. In 
eve took some boys out walking 
made several calls and then 
retired to our respective quarters.

(page 48)
Thursday May 22, 62
   Right warm again. Did not 
do much, or care about doing 
much but for all that I mus
tered dignity enough to sit 
for my likeness with which 
I was dissatisfied so concluded 
to try again. No news is rec’d 
lately here for the telegraph wires 
have been down. The forces in 
the Potomac though are advan-
cing on to Richmond now being 
within 7 miles of there. Anxiously 
I am waiting to hear of a move 
at Corinth that will dispel 
the opposing forces. All manifest 
a degree of uneasiness in regard 
to the long stand still but all 
is for the best probably for great 
preparation is necessary before 
making attacks.

(page 49)
   Friday May 23, 1862
Right pleasant again and moderate. 
Col  Barstow Wis. I Cav. Two Co 
arrived at noon to relieve us 
of Provost duty. I did but little 
all day. Had another picture 
taken. rambled about in eve 
retired rather late. I was 
happily surprised by the arrival 
of 3 letters which greatly cheered 
me, causing hanging doubt 
to retreat out of sight.

Saturday May 24, 62 
   How balmy and invigorating 
the weather. good news rec’d 
this morning. We are going 
to Corinth. How over joyous 
the boys are! at the idea. How 
much more honorable to fight 
the real instigators of the 
war instead of the Indians. 

(p. 50)
   Spent the day in writing to 
my old dear friends. I am feel-
ing quite good.

Sunday May 25, 62
   The skies were very cloudy & 
portentius the most part of 
the day but yet they did 
not vent forth from their 
apparent fullness. Attended 
Church and Sunday school as 
usual after Sunday school I 
& Jesse took a long walk down 
the river through S. Leavenworth. 
How beautiful the scenery 
along the river. How beautiful
the location of South L.-- all 
covered with oak trees scattered 
just as nature planted them 
in clusters here and there all over.  
I am in love with S.L. so 
romantic retired it is. 

(p. 51)
   Just below is a Brewery on 
the backs banks of the river 
the walls made of stone the 
back side of the building which 
three stories high being formed 
by the high rocks, natural only 
hewn smooth, the cellar where 
the Beer is kept is 80x130 
long extending back into 
Mother Earth that distance 
having been made by blasting 
stones out - quite a curiosity 
splendid building stone line 
the banks of the river for 
miles, high & deep of a hor-
izontal shape or posture. 
   I almost persuaded 
Smith to go to Corinth 
with us as a soldier 
but he hardly knew what to do.

(page 52)
Monday May 26, 62 
   All are busy preparing for 
Corinth. Much will have 
to be left behind. It seems 
as though this has been the 
warmest day of the season.  
I have not time to detail 
my remarks but will sim-
ply say that I am exceeding-
ly busy. In afternoon went 
over to the government farm. 
   They have 1300 acres under 
cultivation, their meadows are
taina grass. They employ 
15 hands till haying then they 
engage enough to make the 
number 50. It is splendidly 
situated on a bluff commanding 
the city and fort. I would 
like to live there. Quite 
civilized & fenced it is. 

(page 53)
   It has been under cultivation 
twenty years. They pay this 
season for laborers $20 per month 
and board them. They quit and com-
mence work at six o’clock The 
boss workman receives $1500 
a year and makes all he can 
otherwise. The fort is a great 
advantage to the working pub-
lic for it furnishes work for 
so many all the while.

(diary entries change from ink to pencil)
Tuesday May 27, 62
   I never was so busy in my 
life-orders after orders kept being 
sent in all day. The review took 
place as ordered. The general app-
earance of the troops were good & 
complimentary. What should sur-
prise me late in the afternoon 
but orders for our Regt to prepare 
immediately for starting for Corinth. 

(page 54)
   I had made all calculations 
on going to the sociable once 
more, having entertained the 
idea that we would not start 
for Tennessee til the next 
day or tomorrow. Accordingly 
all was packed. Negroes boys 
and the rest of our Co ordered 
down the river did not reach 
Leavenworth till late in the 
afternoon so much running 
about they caused that I could 
not leave to go to any place 
of entertainment. How dis-
appointed I was! I did not 
have time to write in my diary 
yesterday. I am writing yes-
terday proceedings in the 
Emilie, on board ready for 
a start any moment. All 
is stationary is nothing in respect.

(page 55)
   Wednesday May 28, 62
A very pleasant day. The rain 
of last night purified the air 
greatly.  Sometime during the 
night we started on our trip, it 
must have been nearly morning 
29th inst for when I awoke 
we were only 7 miles from L 
I slept as I have done before 
on the soft side of a board 
on the middle deck outside. 
   All was confusion, noise 
and bustle consequently I 
rested poorly. some of the new 
ones who came on in the 
eve were drunk. I did 
not want to start as we 
did so hurriedly for so many 
things I forgot that I 
shall feel wanting some them.

(page 56)
Thursday May 29th 1862
   When I awoke in the morn 
the boat was under motion 
and what first started me to 
my feet was the cry of “some
one has fallen overboard” & 
sure enough someone did. One 
would remark he’s nothing 
but a soldier “who cares for him” 
etc. The poor unfortunate fel-
low was not rescued. I feel 
as though I had not rested 
very well. The scenery along the 
river is really beautiful. Now 
and then one sees a farm 
house cozily situated, chimney 
outside the house from the 
ground up and occasionally 
a small town greets the eye. 
   The only tns of note are ...-
dan   and Wyandotte the former 

(page 57)
place looking as gloomy as 
the last rose of summer while 
the latter presents a view en-
tirely opposite, though it is 
small. We reached Kansas 
City at 7 o’clock a city once 
the most flourishing west 
of the Mississippi but now in 
a disapping condition. What 
first struck my eye was 
the extremely deep cuts 
through the bluffs along the 
banks to make a street. 
The banks straight up to each 
side of the street till one gets 
into the main part of the city 
are upwards of 10 ft. high. How 
beautiful the trees look all 
along drooping their green boughs 
in the “old muddy.” We put 
rations we made for 

(page 58)
breakfast. Each had to 
take what he could get. I 
had some cold boiled ham 
& bread & butter besides some 
hard crackers. I frequently 
notice com up. Missouri 
City seems to be quite an 
old place but yet small 
and in a dilapidated condition.
   We reached there about 
10 o’clock. Wayne City is a 
small landing place for 
inland towns. The bluffs 
after one passes Missouri City 
disappears and the appearance 
of the country is better 
by far. For dinner we had some
coffee that make a bitter 
relish. The boys are all en-
gaged taking notes of what 
they see. Camden we reach 

(page 59)
at noon. It is built on the 
side hill, a small place barren 
in appearance on the north 
side of the river. Now and then 
an evergreen Island dots the 
river and a sand bar lifts 
its sandy head above the surface 
of the river as well as stubs 
and logs. The timber is mostly 
cotton wood, some elm.
   Wellington is also on a 
bluff - a small town as it 
looks from the river.  We are 
now 7 mi from Lexington. 
   Sycamore trees are quite plenty. 
The stop at Lexington was pro-
longed longer than intended 
that the old heroes of one battle 
might see the battle ground, etc. 
I visited it.  Saw the rents in 
the old desolate college, breastworks 

(p. 60)
the rebels position, a grain 
of Wallace Martins nephew, des
olate houses made desolate 
by showers of shot & shell as 
the town presented a lonesome 
appearance yet an appearance 
of age and wealth altogether 
pleasant - being built on 
bluffs, shaded streets etc. Bluffs 
again appear as we made an 
approach to Lexington. The 
ascent is exceedingly slick up 
from the landing. The band 
played beautiful strains 
as we stop and left the place.
   We were hailed with joy 
judging from the kerchiefs 
waved etc. at Waverly, I cer
tainly believe they are all 
secesh for no demonstration 
whatever did they make. 

(p. 61)
We are in the land of live 
secesh. I am getting sick 
of traveling with so many. 
It is jam, cramp, lurch & 
hunt and a grat of our  entire.

Friday May 30, 62
   We stopped last night at a 
wood landing or the steamboat 
stopped --and made only eleven 
miles travel. It is very unsafe 
to travel nights in the river for 
the channel is so changeable. 
As the morning first dawned 
we reached Boonville - a city 
of some note - a battle field, 
built cozily & snugly as well 
as neatly on a gradual assent 
of ground.  I really admired the 
place as well as the surrounding 
country which is higher more 
fertile and better located. The 

(page 62)
northern shore especially & 
some ports of the opposite shore 
is exceedingly rocky high up 
extending, grayish brown 
covered with vines and shrubs.
 One point in particular struck 
my notion just this side of 
Boonville before reaching 
Rockford about 10 miles from 
B. It was a pointed rock jut
ting out over the river. Miles 
covered with vines called the 
lovers leaf. Rye is looking 
beautifully all headed out 
waving to & fro so regularly.
   Brunswick is a handsome 
little town the first town 
above Boonville some 30 
miles. Before reaching Jefferson 
City for miles the country 
presents a picture of prosperity 

(page 63)
and fertility--the shore is formed 
of layers of limestone mixed 
with a kind of black stuff 
rendering the view varigated. 
   Beautiful residences dot the 
banks. Jeff. City is built on 
... as the Bluffs.  The first 
building that meets the eye 
is the Capital - a large brick 
edifice with semicircular porch 
and circular dome, etc. The 
State Prison next strikes the 
eye as well as some handsome 
residences. The Pacific R.R. 
runs along the banks of the river 
not yet complete. The band 
struck up and played some 
of their sweet melodies in time 
for the entertainment of lookers 
on much to our enjoyment. 
The banks are extremely rugged 

(page 64)
now at Jeff City we are 17 
miles from St. Louis.
   Now 1/2 past 12 o’clock we are 
about eighty miles below Boon-
ville. It is getting really mount-
ainous both sides of the river 
especially the north side where 
nature throws herself up hundreds 
of ft. in rocks. Pleasant to look 
at the layers perpendicular & 
grand to all appearances. Grey 
and dark brown but little can 
be seen of the country here. 
The banks are high each side.
   Ridgley could not be found. 
He must have drownded when 
he fell off the boat--he broke 
his neck I think. A perfect 
motive to whiskey, hardly able 
to stand when from under 
its stimulus. Three from 

(page 65)
our Regt have fell into the old 
Muddy since we left Leav. 
   Wallashington is located in a 
beautiful position on bluffs 
rolling and from the appear-
ance and size of this point this 
has been long settled. Our 
arrival was greeted with 
dire enthusiasm. We are com-
ing near to St. Charles. The 
soil can’t be very deep for 
the shores indicate to clearly 
the depth of it. From Fort Leav 
to St. Louis 499 mi, and from Kansas 
City to St. Louis 457 mi. From Camden 
to St. L. 389 mi. From Lexington 
to St. L. 371 mi. From Boonville 
to St. L. 232 mi. From Jeff City 
to St. L. 174, Augusta 76 miles etc. 
St Louis is a small town on a 
side hill like the rest. 

(page 66)
   Below on the opposite side of 
the river is the most picturesque 
scenery I’ve seen on the river 
the highest and most beautifully 
decked with trees jutting out 
majesticly-- then sinking so 
abruptly that it forcibly strikes 
the eye of natures admirers.
   We make everybody take their 
hat off when we see them 
or we threaten to shoot. It is 
7 o’clock the sun is obscured 
by a cloud -the indications of 
rain are strikingly plain, the 
river is dotted with Islands of 
considerable size and looks 
wide and more like something.

Saturday May 31, 62
   How it did rain last night 
just after all were snugly 
in bed. If there was not a 

(page 67)
sudden skedaddling from the 
Hurricaine deck when I lose 
my guess.  All could not get in
side so they stayed out and O. 
how dripping wet they got, all 
endure with good humer. The 
boat anchored for the night 
about 6 miles from the mouth 
of the Missouri. About 4 o’clock
this morning we entered the 
Miss, what an intermingling 
of muddy and clear water when 
the Big Muddy starts across 
but soon that disappears & 
the clear crystal waters 
of the great mother of waters 
alone is seen. The change 
is great beyond description 
in size and general appearance 
wider, deeper and very 

(page 68)
   We reached our destination 
Bloody Island opposite St. 
Louis at 6 o’clock all safe 
and sound.  The Cav. were imme
diately - after a while we the 
Infants were allowed to go 
off the boat. Confectionery peddlers 
without number hastened to 
supply us with the goodies 
of all sorts strawberries & cherries 
quite rarities. The Island is 
covered with trees - not overly 
large quite pleasant through 
the news this morning is 
like to send us back to Leav 
City. Corinth is evacuated & 
the rebels are on the retreat 
what the cause of such a 
movement is can’t be im
agined. I doubt whether 
we go there now.

(page 69)
   I wandered about the Island 
all day making observations 
etc. peddlers continued to 
stream in - the boys to bother 
them by stealing their pies, cakes, 
apples with sharpened sticks. No 
less than a hundred of us had 
gay sport in swimming with 
the boats & horses which we 
caused to swim with us, there 
is quite a settlement on this 
Island, Saloons, Hotels, con-
fectionary shops, residences etc. It 
is the terminum of all the RR 
that entered, approach St. Louis 
from the NE and S, a great many 
boys are busy writing letters! 
Steamer Estella arrived about 1 
o’clock landed with the 12th & 
13th Wis and 7th Cav, a portion of 
retired early.

(page 70)
Sunday June 1, 62
   It rained a little last night 
and the air this morning was 
considerable warmer colder. 
The Steamer McDowd arrived 
at 7 o’clock loaded with soldiers 
for Corinth. How busy it is 
not at all like Sunday, so much 
hooting and carousing. Wrote 
a love letter for Seth and one 
to Mother. Seth & I went over 
to Illinois town to mail our 
letters. This forenoon two spies 
were arrested. Now 1 o’clock it is 
misting, rendering all gloomy. 
I ought to write one more letter. 
   We left at 8 o’clock as or-
dered. With difficulty we 
started the boat from the 
bow for it was so heavily 
loaded, our parting was 

(page 71)
enthusiastically demonstrated by 
shouts and yells - the band played 
beautifully. We passed Jeff Barracks 
about three miles below the City – 
old in appearance. Bloody Island 
is just across from the Barracks 
named so on account of the 
numerous pugillistic battles 
fought there, the scenery is 
beautiful. Rimley is was the 
first town we passed upwards 
of four miles from St. Louis. 
   Beautiful residences spring 
up here and there on the rocky 
yet picturesque shores like 
palaces in appearance. Real 
cold. The most of the ladies 
have now left us. I am some 
sorry for they are a charming 
portion of humanity. I retired 

(page 72)
Monday June 2, 62
   Yesterday was Sunday but 
who would have known it, 
as we were situated the ring
ing of the St. Louis Church bells 
surprised one several times & 
intimated that it was the 
seventh day. I awoke at 5 o’
clock, eat my breakfast. 
   The scenery is still roman-
tic and beautifully picturesque 
along the river - the shores 
covered with heavy timber 
trees angled with grey head-
ed wood that now & then 
peep through the green fol-
iage. Cape Girardeau was 
the first place we passed in 
the morning, a small place 
with some beautiful buildings 
not very small though. 

(page 73)
   The place must be about 150 
miles below St. Louis on the 
hill just above the town and 
built breastworks for the de-
fense of the city. I am feeling 
better today. We reached Cairo 
at 1/2 past 9 o’clock this morn-
ing. On the right of the Miss 
coming down just opposite of 
Cairo is Birds Point a very 
sharp point of land jutting 
into the river. How clear the 
Ohio looks - its waters with re-
luctance commingling with 
the nasty Mississippi. Cairo is 
a small town of a five thou-
sand inhabitants of a business 
appearance built on low ground 
prevented from overflowing by 
levees as embankments. It 
does not look very neat. 

(page 74)
Across the Ohio from Cairo 
is the Kentucky shore all 
covered with trees. the em
bankment is 12 or 15 high. 
The stop in Cairo was short. 
Soon we were on our way for 
Columbus which place we 
reached at 2 o’clock pm. The 
shores are low all the way & 
covered with woods. The first 
that attracted my attention 
as we approached Columbus 
were the fortifications on a 
point just above the place 
200 feet high which place 
I visited as soon as we 
landed. 15 acres are strongly 
defended by immense breas
tworks, heavy mounts with 
128 lb cannons and smaller 
ones besides water batteries

(page 75)
etc. The 54th Ills now are pro-
tecting the position. It com-
mands the surrounding coun-
try for miles, and why the 
secesh would so easily give up 
such a position is more than 
I know, one thousand men 
could repulse forty thousand 
with ease. Across the river was 
fought the Battle of Belmont. 
   Torpedoes of all kinds have 
been dug up from the ground, 
long cylindrical ones with 
conical heads. Those hat 
shaped etc. besides shells & balls 
without number which were 
thrown into the river since 
having appeared on dry land 
by the fall of the river, any 
quantity of large guns were 
thrown into the river etc. 

(page 76)
and thousands of feet of cable 
chain have been taken from 
across the river that were in
tended to impede our progress.  
   Columbus is a very small 
place of no account, dirty 
and ugly. Nearly the whole 
of our brigade is now here.
   A unionist made the first 
few torpedoes which were fired 
and exploded admirably (the 
sesesh thought he was one 
of their kind) but the rest he 
made were so constructed as 
to be entirely harmless - quite 
a keen trick - the originator 
skedaddled soon after comple-
ting his job, all is confusion, 
orders have been received and 
countermanded until finally 
we are to stay here tonight.

(page 77)
Tuesday June 3d 1862
   I awoke early, we slept on the 
boat last night, How warm 
this morn! About 8 I took a 
bath, went away down the 
river, I found a kind of red 
clay very tough and shapable, some 
made pipes, white fine sand 
was very plenty, not far from 10, 
we received orders to proceed into 
camp about two miles from Co-
lumbus back on the bluff and 
Oh! such a bristling and kicking up 
of troops, the McDivel arrived 
with the Wisconsin troops. As 
we were marching to our new 
home a right smart shower 
visited us, wetting us through 
and while we were pitching 
our tents, it rained most 
all the while. How 

(page 78)
unpleasant. A flash of 
lightening struck some trees 
close by our quarters, consid-
erably shocking us. We have 
quite nice camping grounds. 
In the afterpart of the day 
I took a walk after some 
water and found torpedoes, guns 
in different places along the 
path. It was dug up and im-
mense boxes of powder found. The 
timber is of a superior quality as 
there are large quantities of oak, 
cherry etc. back in the woods in 
an opening are four acres of 
clearings or more, and what should 
be there but hundreds of mules 
& cattle dead, having been killed 
by the secesh that they would 
escape falling into our hands 
at the time we took this place. 

(page 79)
This section of the country has 
been long settled as is indicated 
by the fruit trees. For three or 
four miles about us are breast-
works and trees felled for self pro-
tection. Now the force here is very 
strong comprising though no 
more than our Brigade & the 
54th Ill or strong taking into 
consideration our means for 
self defense, our battery 
reached us in the eve. Columbus was 
before the war a thriving place of 
two or three thousand inhabitants 
but now nearly all of the former 
occupants have left for parts un-
known. What few are left are 
on the sly poisoning the beer, 
cakes, and pies that they sell to 
the soldiers, several have been 
poisoned already. Fish are large.

(page 80)
Wednesday June 4th 62
   A real lousy day: but little 
sun. All were busy making prep
arations for comfort. I slept the 
best last night of any time 
since we left Leav. City with 
nothing over me till most morn. 
   How early I get up. Not far from 
4 o’clock an such a ravenous 
appetite, I feel quite well, I saw 
some new kinds of wood, paw-
paw, gum wood.

Thursday June 5 1862
   Cool & agreeable. Drilled some 
in skermish drill, while 
out received orders to march 
tomorrow morn at 8 o’clock. 
It suits us all. Change is 
pleasant for a soldier 
every time. It is all ex
citement & frivolity. 

(page 81)
Friday June 6th 1862
   Cloudy and sunless. In accordance 
with the orders received yesterday 
we all packed our knaps & took 
down our tents. Much was thrown 
away, such as overcoats, pants etc. 
to make our baggage as light 
as possible for we were obliged 
to carry it on our back.  The men 
were all murmuring because 
they could not carry their knaps 
and as we had only one team 
nothing but Co property could be 
carried. After awhile we were all 
ready and waiting for orders to 
start but for two hours we waited 
in vain when we were ordered 
to repitch our tents. How mean 
it made us all feel to be so 
fooled as it were. Soon we 
were at it & up the tents went. 

(p. 82)
   Went to the river with three 
or four dozen boys to bathe. 
   How it does make the boys 
grumble to do so much ...
at the river.  Yesterday a fellow
was arrested out of his own folly 
saying that he could put his 
foot on a certain little thing 
and blow up the whole breastwork 
for a great distance. The report 
is current that Fort Pilam is 
taken and that it was blown 
up.  How pleasant the evenings 
are & how cool!

Sat June 7, 62
   Very warm and pleasant all day.
    We received orders to march 
again at 7 tomorrow morn.    
We had beef in great plenty 
all day & guttersnipe for supper.

(page 83)
Sunday June 8, 62
   We started on our march at 
9 o’clock or a few minutes 
before. We all wanted to get 
rid of carrying our knapsacks 
and put them on the wagon 
but the Capt said all that 
were able, should carry their 
own truck so on we strapped 
the rigging with a free will.
   Our brigade was formed in 
rank & file in line of battle
the artillery on the right and 
at the beat of the drum all 
started off when the band 
struck up one of those mar-
tial airs and played for about 
a mile all keeping good 
time. After we got out into 
the country we marched 
at will. It seemed like 

(p. 84)
fun at first but soon the 
knapsacks began to pull 
heavy and our shoulders to 
grow sore. We stopped often.  
Our march till now 2 o’clock 
has been through thick 
heavy timber of all kinds, 
cyprus wood, oak as large 
tall & nice as ever I saw, walnut, 
paw paw, some maple, gum 
wood.  The route we traveled 
was a little south east, 
timber all the way, now and 
then an opening where a 
farm house would be located, 
secesh of course, because 
their darkeys said so. As 
we left Columbus upwards 
of 50 acres were covered with 
log soldier huts all burned 
to the ground. We stopped 

(p. 85)
often and shortly. At two we 
stopped at a farm home up-
wards of 8 miles from Columbus, 
Secesh, for they said when asked 
that they had no relations and 
were mum on all points. The 
boys drained the well dry, 
helped themselves to onions 
etc. took amongst themselves 
nearly 1 barrel of molasses 
away in their canteens. It 
would be no more than right 
if we should clear them 
out entire.  My shoulders are 
dreadful lame and sore as 
well as my back. I hardly 
know whether I will stand 
it or not. I don’t like the style 
of carrying things on my back.
 We are now 8 miles from a 
crossing ground - far to right 

(p. 86)
corn and all crops look very 
backward, cherries have rip-
ened & some apples are about 
large enough to cook.  A guard 
has been sent back two miles 
to help the teamsters get out 
of their muck having got 
stuck in the mud. Since we 
stopped some of the boys have 
gone to sleep, others are sitting 
mutely, others are rambling about 
and still others are laying &
talking about this & that. 
   We reached our camping ground 
about 7 o’clock all tired & 
sleepy. In less than half an 
hour all the tents were pitched, 
water brought and fires built ready 
for living. The Wis 12th arrived 
about 10 min after us. The 
lot we are camped on 

(p. 87)
is about 10 acres large, entire
ly surrounded with timber, thick 
and heavy, square. It now 
looks like a village, in fact 
it is one, our tents are pitched 
in a wheat field where the 
wheat is so poor that it is 
of no account. What nice 
timber lands we have passed 
through today. The secesh 
are frank to confess their 
position and are few in number.

Monday June 9, 62
   Very pleasant morn & day. 
Towards morning we got quite 
cold, how heavy the dew fell.
   We started on the march at 
7 o’clock having arose at 4 
o’clock. My shoulders felt good. 
All started cheerfully. We reached 

(p. 88)
   Moscow at 12 o’clock precisely 
having marched 12 miles, our 
camping place. The country 
passed through was more open 
and settled -the crops looked well. 
Wheat was ripe in many places 
while quite green in others. 
   Corn looks slim. How pleas-
ant the timber is! We passed 
through one place by the name 
of Clinton  - a very small town 
union though for a Union flag 
was spread. The chimneys are 
mostly built outside the houses 
and an opening through the 
center of the house is a prevalent 
fashion Jennisons Jayhawkers 
as well as well as(sic) all of the 
Kansas troops are a terror to all. 
   The boys have felt well all 
day & sung and laughed con

(p. 89)
tinually almost. We are camped 
in an extremely beautiful place 
close by a stream of water, in 
a grove of beautiful timber. The 
force here now is upwards of 
5000, the Wis 12th and 13th, the 
Kansas 1st, 7th, and 8th Regts being 
now camped about this vicinity. 
   Moscow is of no account. seemingly 
so small, the inhabitants mostly 
are in the Rebel army since they 
enlisted having been taken 
prisoner and carried to Chicago. 
   What few left here have ske-
daddled no one knows where, when 
they heard of our troops coming 
here. They hear no news, there 
being no Post Office here, how 
eager they are for the news, being 
willing to pay anything for 
a paper.

(p. 90)
Tuesday June 10th 62
   We started on the march at 
6 o’clock a.m. and in a humid 
manner march into Union City 
which place we reached at 1/2 
past 1 o’clock, distanced 12 miles 
from Moscow. The country all 
the way presented a more im-
proved appearance, etc. - the land 
being more cleared and of a better 
quality as was indicated by 
the appearance of the crops.  
   Wheat is ripe and being now har-
vested - corn continues to look 
poorly. The work is being done 
by darkeys of both classes. The 
women darkeys grinding 
while the boys reap. No whites 
can be seen. Timber is yet quite 
plenty but of a poor quality. 
Persimmon trees are seen 

(p. 91)
as well as cyprus, now & then 
oak. As soon as we crossed the 
line farm houses began to be 
desolate and lands untilled but very 
few citizens were seen. Apples 
are to be plenty. Union City 
is a very scattered town. None of 
its former inhabitants are in 
the place now but lots of soldiers.
   The boys lagged a considerable 
some with sore feet, others of fa-
tigue. I, myself, was nearly tired 
out. A great many troops are 
here. We are 15 miles from 
the river & 7 miles from the line 
between this state (Tenn) and Ky.
   Yesterday some of Jennisons men 
stopped at a house to get a 
drink of water. The lady re
fused and said she would give 
no unionist a bit of water 

(p. 92)
for which insult they deman-
ded the rings from off her fin
gers - she refused when they 
said you die then drawing 
a revolver to shoot her, she 
soon gave them up and off 
they went. The day before the 
same ones stole (is naturally 
Jayhawkers) a gold watch 
& a breastpin besides a pair 
of earrings. The union troops 
are all a terror to the Secesh 
and flee or tremble at their 
coming. The real design of 
our army is misunderstood 
by the Rebels, they entertaining 
the idea that we intend to 
make a clean sweep of all 
property belonging to them 
which is erroneous. 

(p. 93)
   To-day two contrabands who were 
working in a wheat field close 
to the road were coaxed away 
from their master to go with us 
by some of Co H. They went a little 
way with us but as soon as the 
Col found out the performance 
he told the darkeys that is they 
wanted to go with us they might, 
but if not they must go directly 
back to their master. The reply was 
that they would like to go but 
if their masser should ever catch
them he would whip them to 
death and that they would not 
know how to get a living when 
the war is over. The most of the 
secesh at home are neutral – 
those under arms having fled 
from this state & Ky on account 
of the advance of our forces 

(p. 94)
southward. Soldiers are fleeing 
in every direction all about here 
on duty or taking care of their 
homes. Now 6 o’clock I feel 
quite rested to what I did 
when we first reached here.
   The day has been sultry. 
I am on duty as Sergeant 
of the Guard. I never saw a 
village built so peculiarly as 
this is, in the woods, and so scat-
tering. The Memphis and Ohio RR 
and the Nashville and Tenn RR form 
make a junction here, but the 
roads are not in operation now.  
   I retired at 1 o’clock feeling 
Oh! how tired. It is pretty 
hard business to soldier & do 
guard when on the march. Very warm. It has 

(p. 95)
Wednesday June 11, 62
   The skies are clear. The days 
altogether sunny and the eve 
beautiful. I have felt quite 
down in the mouth all day 
on account of being up so long
without sleep. We have had 
no duty to do. I took a bath 
in the afternoon.

Thursday June 12th 1862
   The atmosphere is smoky & clear,
the days very warm and sunny & the 
dust so plenty. I sewed all the fore
noon on my pants putting on 
stripes, etc. The Secesh are flocking 
in to take the oath of allegiance 
as penitent and humble as a ... 
One came in yesterday who 
wished a pass to go outside the 
pickets. He went to the General 
and told him he was a Secesh, 

(p. 96)
that he aided & abetted the 
Rebellion etc. of course the 
pass was not given it. He there
fore went away disappointed but 
should surprise us but the fact 
that this morning he was found hanging 
to a tree dead dead dead. Some 
of Jennisons perpetrated the deed. 
   Every day dozens of teams go out 
to pick corn and give orders for 
pay on the post. Q.M. at Columbus 
who will not pay them until 
the bearer takes the oath of alleg-
iance. A good trick that.

Friday June 13th 1862
   Still warm and sultry. I am 
feeling quite well. A bold hand-
ded robbery was committed 
last even. resulting in the 
robbery of a union man of 
$400 in cash. An order 

(p. 97)
severe in its nature was issued 
by the Commdg Gen & published at 
dress parade. Also some beehives 
with honey bees & all were stolen.
We now are having dried peaches 
& apples to eat and corn dodgers too.
   Gen Mitchell compliments our 
Co. by saying that it is the best 
Co in his Brigade & the best one 
he ever saw. Gen Mitchell has 
a very easy way of doing his 
business especially with the Secesh 
whom he allows to go about un-
molested even if they openly af-
firm they are Secesh & abet & aid 
the Rebellion. The order published 
last evening contains a very 
degrading clause which he 
applied to the entire Union Army. 
  It was this “that thieving was 
a prevalent characteristic of 
the entire Army north” - 

(p. 98)
a compliment that enrages 
all of us to a high pitch of 
disrespect towards him. He 
has to much sympathy for the
traiterous rascals for a man 
engaged in supressing rebell-

Saturday June 14, 62
   Still uncommonly warm & 
sultry, very dry so dry that 
vegetation is curled. Lazed 
about all day, read some, sport-
ed some, etc.  -retired early. All 
seem to be in good spirits & 
are cheerful. The Pickets shot in 5
secesh prisoners from the 
Rebel army. They fired on to 
us. One had a furlough. The 
other was wounded. All were 
short robust fellows. In the 
eve they were taken to Columbus.

(p. 99)
Sunday June 15, 62
   No use of saying it is sultry 
& dusty & dry etc. for it is get-
ting to common & to well estab-
lished. Emmit &  Hurd, Bangs 
& myself went with forage teams 
after corn away into Kentucky 
about 10 miles. All in all we had 
quite a comical time inasmuch 
that we had a good dinner at 
a plantation cooked by the black 
beauties. It surprises me to see 
rich old planters living in such 
rude houses and in such rude 
stiles. So it is all over the country. 
The darkeys seem to be well cared 
for. The residences are generally 
in thickets of timber of which there 
is plenty. The products are wheat 
corn & hay - the latter being cut 
in large quantities & prep for sale. 

(p. 100)
   Fruit is very plenty indeed % 
everyone has an orchard. The 
farms are uncommonly large 
and far between. Corn Dodgers 
are all the go. Sour lobbered milk 
is a rarity and delicate dish. Com-
ing back we milked some cows 
in a pasture, how good! 
   The stock is of superior quality 
blood. We reached home at 
7 o’clock.

Monday June 16, 1862
   We were aroused all of us at 
3 o’clock in order to be ready 
for our march at an early hour. 
Everything ere 5 was packed & 
in good condition for traveling 
but some delay hindered and it 
was 7 before we marched and 
after we did start the roads were 
so muddy in spots that the 

(p. 101)
teams could hardly get along, 
& so it was for 3 or 4 miles stop 
stop stop. Finally the roads 
became good, and now we had to 
go, the sun shone like a hot fur-
nace. The dust flew. It seemed as if 
we would suffocate. The greater part 
for the way here (to the RR bridge 
7 miles) has been timber as large 
as evergreen. The Wis 12 are build-
ing the bridge here over which was 
burned about 6 weeks since. Our 
stop at the bridge was quite pro-
tracted inasmuch that the cupling 
pole to our wagon broke & we had 
to make a new one. At 3 we started 
and went through all timber 
till we stopped 4 miles distant. 
   Our camp was located on an 
opening surrounded by woods. 
No sooner were we snugly 

(p. 102)
settled than strong indications 
of rain exhibited themselves & 
all commenced digging trenches, 
etc. around their tents, but before 
all had completed their job, down 
came the rain in perfect 
torrents accompanied by tremen-
dous thunder and sharp lightening, 
drenching the tardy ones not 
their beds. Some stripped & 
ran out into the rain to wash 
themselves - others staid in. It 
rained a long time. Oh! how 
it did thunder! Then the rain 
poured. Quite refreshing after 
such a warm spell. In the 
I could not sleep much, so 
much noise the portentious 
clouds made as the wind 
lightenings darted through 
the sky.

(p. 103)
Tuesday June 17, 1862
   The skies were looming all day 
though at times the sun would 
peep through and shed heat oppress-
ive to our very bodies. We started 
not so early as common. The first 
half dozen miles was muddy trav-
eling, sticky & gummy but then we 
reached the extent of the shower 
and it was some dusty. As on 
previous days much of the way 
was through timber over rolling 
land. Residences were crude and 
old – now & then secesh to the 
backbone. Our march was about 
12 miles, the last of which was 
through a pure union country 
with one or two exceptions. That 
portion known as the Ethridge 
District. Now E-- is a clerk 
in the House of Representatives. 

(p. 104)
   The spirit of unionism that 
he spread in the minds in this 
immediate vicinity proves that 
the power of human intellect 
over outsiders. One house we 
passed was a scene pictured of 
a very effecting nature.  It was 
occupied by a family of loyal-
ists true hearted and firm. Their 
home was a crude log one. As 
we approached them they ran 
out overjoy at our coming 
with tears streaming down 
their cheeks. Their hands were 
clasped in ecstacy. Their look 
so benign and unaffected that 
altogether it produced a war-
mth of feeling within us all.  
Our hands were grasped with 
an uncommon grip firmly 
pressed. The band struck 

(p. 105)
up and played a few strains for 
them, then gave three cheers 
for our worthy cause and after 
having been treated with all 
they had in the way of delicacies
 on we started, refreshed and r-
enewed to go ahead and revise others 
from their gloom. We are 
camped close by the home of E—
Ethridge in a beautiful section 
of country, the best we have passed 
through yet. Where some hand-
some mansions are seen in a 
clover field. Jennisons boys are 
gay fellows into nigger stealing 
every time. Which is contrary 
to the desires of our Genl. He 
threatened & in fact issued an 
order stating that he would 
muster the Kansas troops out 
if they did not stop it.

(p. 106)
Wednesday June 18, 1862
It rained again last night 
like every thing but yet the 
sun shone the most part of the 
day very warm. In the forenoon 
a great many of us went over to 
the widow Ethridges after berries, 
plums and mulberries. How thick 
they were! We all returned with 
hats full. In the afternoon at 
dress parade upwards of 50 or 60 
citizens, ladies and gentlemen came 
to witness the scene. I was de
tailed for guard once more. I 
do dislike the business! It was 
confusion in camp all the 
fore part of the night. Boys 
were prowling about the houses 
close by thieving pistols were 
fired, dogs barked and just 
before midnight 

(p. 107)
   A messenger from Trenton came 
on double quick in to camp 
with an order for us to report 
as soon as possible to Trenton 
for an attack was expected. 
   An old man, a strong secesh 
was brought in. He remained 
about here disturbing the 
unionists around, exposing them 
to the insults of the Rebel Scouts

Thursday June 19th 1862
   Cloudy more or less all day. 
   At three o’clock the band struck 
up & played several times to arouse 
us from sleep to prepare for 
a march to Trenton. At 7 we 
started, having been obliged to 
leave our baggage behind for 
the teams had gone to Union 
City. The beautiful country 

(p. 108)
around about the Ethridge 
district soon disappeared & 
as heretofore on other sections 
it was swampy, woodsy & to 
clayey for good land. So it was 
all the way, 24 miles rather 
rude farms & farm houses 
yet in many instances corn 
and other crops looked well. The 
majority of the people were Rebel 
open and frank about always 
stating plainly what they 
were. I admire such honesty.
 We arrived at T- at 1/2 past 
5 o’clock & if ever I was tired 
it was then. We were obliged 
to stand a long while that 
preparations for quarters might 
be made & when we did 
start I could scarcely move 
and was so cold. Finally 

(p. 109)
we concluded to occupy the 
Depot - a large brick building 
sufficiently large. As we 
passed through the town quite 
a good many burst into tears 
either through fear or on 
account of joy at our coming 
& when the morning evening 
gun was fired how startled all 

Friday June 20th 1862
   Still with prospects of foreven 
it is warm. I took a walk up 
through the town. Some of its streets 
are pleasant, well shaded & well 
laid out. Once it was a place 
of trade & prosperity but now the 
most of the houses are vacated
their contents left to the mercy 
of the finder. A few still keep 
up the trade. With but little 

(p. 110)
custom for prices are so dear 
calico 50c for yd, coffee 90c lb, 
salt 25c lb, no tea. Some 
men shoes $4 and $5 a pr., boots $10, 
flour $28 baril, etc. A great many 
left when they heard of our coming. 
One was a doctor. He left 
his medicines, wines, liquors 
of all kinds and fled. We had 
quite a feast. The spirit of 
succession is strong. The union 
flag floats over the Court House 
and the artillery occupy the 
building for their quarters. App
les are ripe, so are plums. 
   The boys make free the use 
of them as well of the 
guttersnips and beefs. The 
out and out secesh are entirely 
mute and cold hearted, dis-
dainful, and overbearing. 

(p. 111)
   As soon as we reached here 
we immediately confiscated a 
dozen or fifteen bbels. of sugar 
therefore we have sweet enough. 
How very cool it is towards 
morn. I can hardly keep
warm. We, our Co, were made 
the remot Guards of Trenton. 
It contains the 1500 inhabitants.

Saturday June 21, 62
   It is pretty warm weather, yet 
it does not seem uncomfort-
able to me at this particular time. 
I have symptoms of fever & ague, 
my bones ache from head to foot. 
I have some fever too. I think 
quinine will kill the chills 
and aches. In the morn 200 
men from the country with 
the Stars & Stripes floating over 
their heads marched in 

(p. 112)
to the Provost Marshall’s office 
and took the oath of alligence to 
the Union. Union speeches 
were made and applause tre
mendous was occassioned. The 
signs are in our favor, all 
is moving favorably.

Sunday June 22d 62
   Clear & bright and warm beyond 
my description. I on duty as 
Sergt. of Guard. All day I had 
a violent headache accompa-
nied by chills not very severe. 
   Religious services were atten-
ded to at both churches. Many 
of the boys attended. In the eve 
some one broke into a Saloon 
& stole 2 bars of whiskey. The 
day was dreary to me. I would 
like to hear from home 
and from other friends. 

(p. 113)
   An order was published prohib-
iting soldiers entering houses ord-
ering meals and then not pay for it 
and Jayhawking too, etc.

Monday June 23d 1862
   Cloudy in morn. I felt really 
bad, my head ached and being on 
duty fatigued me. I retired early.

Tuesday June 24th 62
   About noon it rained like 
everything until mother earth 
was quenched of her thirst. Our 
team reached us about 10 o’clock. 
I had an extremely painful 
headache all day and at night 
had a high fever.  I thought 
I should be sick. It is un-
pleasant to be ailing away 
from home and that in the 
army. Four Regts arrived. 
The force is getting to be 

(p. 114)
quite strong. The first loco-
motive from the South arrived 
at 1 o’clock - soon the road will 
be completed its whole length.

Wednesday June 25 62
   I felt some better so that I 
went on duty as Sergt & officer 
of the guard. Early in the morn 
the 7th Kansas left and the 1st Kans. 
arrived and citizens both men & 
women came in to attend 
the Union Meeting. Soon a 
great crowd had assembled 
but what should add to it 
but the galloping of up
wards of 300 farmers from the 
adjacent country some on 
mules, some on horses mil-
itary style to take the oath 
and show their loyalty for the 
stars & stripes. Their ban

(p. 115)
ner bore this device “Washing-
ton Flag” How puny and un-
healthy the countenance of all 
both men and women and especially the 
children of which there are large 
numbers both black and white. The 
owners of slaves have attempted to 
make them believe that our 
intentions were to take all 
of them that we could, transport 
them to Cuba and there sell them 
to get money to carry on the war 
that had horns and would hook 
their very heads off. We had quite 
a lively time keeping the boys 
from taking the whiskey in town, 
nearly every saloon was broken 
into and barrels of it destroyed.
   Some boys are bent on stealing 
all they can and the Kans 1st are 
great liquor lovers. 

(p. 116)
Thursday June 26th 1862
  The sun shone very warm 
part of the day. My head ached 
some. I did not feel able to 
march so I staid here with 
the rest of the infirm to go 
in the care. Our Battalion 
marched at 6 o’clock for 
Humbolt 12 miles down the 
RR. No rations were left 
for us so we were obliged to 
shirk for ourselves. Emmet 
& I took a walk into the coun
try and dined with a good old 
farmer who minds his own 
business, a union man, a 
man who is benevolent & kind & 
believes in justice. The opinion 
of the majority of Tennesseans 
is that the Confederates would 
lay down their arms 

(p. 117)
immediately if they knew we 
were not fighting to destroy 
slavery and liberate the slaves. 
   Very unfortunate for our 
country that a correct un-
derstanding does not exist in 
regard to our troubles which 
are incurring an enormous 
debt expense besides loss of life.

Friday June 27th 1862
   Appearances of rain lowered in 
the heavens all day yet the 
clouds cried not till night. Our 
expectations of certainly going to 
Humbolt where our Regt. is were 
not gratified. Upwards of sixty 
of us loitered from morn till 
night hoping to go living on 
the benevolence of the Q M who 
gratuitously furnished us with all 
the hard head we wished. 

(p. 118)
   Just after the train which past 
here for Columbus at 11 o’clock 
a.m., some scamps were mean 
and bold enough to tear up the
 track some distance below here 
for three hundred yards. A Co. 
from the Kans 1st were sent 
to repair and guard. A Co. of 
Jackson Cav. are reported to 
be in camp 3 miles from here 
and at other places too, I have 
felt rather worse today.

Saturday June 28th  1862
   It rained last night so that 
the air is pure and invigorating 
but old sol does warm things 
to a great extreme. About 5 
o’clock we the refugees left at 
Trenton got aboard the cars 
for Humbolt 12 miles south 
to join our Co. It seems 

(p. 119)
quite easy to travel in the cars 
compared with marching. We 
found the boys comfortably 
situated. This is the Juncture 
of the Mobile & Ohio & some other 
RR. The Depot is a large commodious 
building--only a few houses com-
pose the town all around close by 
are thick woods. In the guard house 
there is a secish prisoner who shaved 
the head of a union man by force. 
A considerable secesh property has 
been found - clothing sugar etc. 
   The wind blowed briskly & the 
lightening glared and the thunder 
rolled the fore part of the evening. 
I retired early feeling middling 
well. This is a very nasty 
place - dusty & right in the 
open field to. I am anxious 
for the war to close.

(p. 120)
Sunday June 29, 62
   Extremely warm. It is Sun-
day and it looks Sunday like 
out around. I made out the 
payroll not withstanding for 
to-morrow we must be mus
tered any way. The Provost 
Marshall seized a lot of secesh 
clothing and burned them besides 
other equipment. Nothing of 
much account transpired. At 
night it rained some and was cooler.

Monday June 30th 1862
   Rather agreeable out to day 
our muster was short. The Col. 
only just having called the roll. 
We expect to leave here soon 
on an important expedition. 
I feel quite well and fin-
ished making out the rolls.

(p. 121)
Tuesday July 1st 1862
   It rained slightly early in the 
morn & more or less all through 
the day. According to orders the 
Battery & Kans. 7 started for 
Union City and we struck tents 
and packed up. Marched to the 
Depot to be in readiness for the 
train to take us there. Some 
delay occurred and we remained 
till night waiting, when orders 
were received from the Brigadier 
countermanding the orders we 
were under through the day. It 
caused some surprise for the 
telegraph news from McCelland 
seemed to indicate a reverse on 
his part - rumors of a serious 
nature were afloat all tending 
to cause a considerable slang 
talk. Soon we made beds for 

(p. 122)
the night on the porch of 
the Hotel (Osborne House) contented 
for what would be the use of 
being discontented and fretful. 
   I walked up into the town (what 
there is of it) to get something to 
eat in the shape of pies. After 
waiting about an hour for some 
to be baked, my appetite was grat
ified by the privilege of devouring 
a whole one. There are only a few 
stores and they are nearly empty, 
a few dwellings all of which 
are more or less obscured by the 
timber. The boys usually are
well, only a few complaining 
from diarrhea & such com-
plaints. It was my good luck 
to sleep on a board again, 
the soft side of it of course 
I slept well.

(p. 123)
Wednesday July 2d 1862
This is my natal day--a 
right pleasant one. It had 
recalled to mind many pleas-
ing remembrances of other days 
enjoyed with such heartfelt 
pleasure which I look back 
upon with a longing desire 
for days spent with certain 
ones on my birth to return 
once more. Will my next birth
day (if living) be enjoyed with 
old acquaintances & friends? 
Perhaps. One year ago, I was 
in Pine Grove Penn. My school 
had closed and I was staying to 
enjoy the Fourth with the 
fair ones of that romantically 
situated place. Now I am 
in Humboldt Tenn. with 
my Regt waiting patiently 

(p. 124 ---see account page)

(p. 125)
for orders to move somewhere. 
   Not until 4 o’clock were 
we sure of moving when a train 
came from Trenton to convey 
us South. Some of the boys were 
out after berries. Others were swi-
mming and still others were 
loitering about impatiently around 
and in the Hotel. What a rush 
there was for baggage when the 
car whistled for a stop. Two got 
left, Kemble and Robohl. Soon after 
starting we were in Jackson 18 
miles south on the RR where 
we stopped for the night. No 
quarters were prepared for us, 
only such as the freight car 
we rode in furnished. Many 
slept on there, while others 
bunked on the ground. Supper
was prepared by 10 o’clock 

(p. 126)
of coffee, crackers and bacon. Some 
had stewed berries & potatoes 
which they had hawked. Jackson 
is a handsome city, a tastily 
planned city, a magnificently 
grand one of 5000 inhabit
ants - so neat & clean, so well 
shaded and such beautiful res
idences and pleasure grounds oc-
cupied by wealthy ones of earth 
of course. Three Brigades are 
quartered here belonging to 
McClernands Division, the most 
of which are Illinois boys. I 
slept soundly but was cross 
pained to think we had no 
better place to sleep. Some 
one was moaning all night. 
   We were obliged to stay 
near by for fear the cars 

(p. 127)
Thursday July 3d 1862
   The sun rose in as clear a sky as ever 
looked upon us mortals & shone with 
warmth unbearable almost the 
most part of the day. We left 
Jackson at 4 o’clock for Corinth. 
   For the first 10 miles we fairly flew 
through space - then a portion 
of track was reached all covered 
with weeds. It was almost im-
possible for the cars to go so slippery 
the track was. scarcely 1 mile an 
hour was made. The old iron horse 
being to weak to draw such a 
long train up an upgrade 
rendered so slippery. Finally 1/2 
the train was left until the 
other half was drawn to good 
going - then back they went to 
get that. Blackberries were O, 
so thick each side the track 

(p. 128)
and in the lots. We picked lots 
of them and while the engine was 
back for the left half I picked 
nearly a pint which made a 
good meal. This was at a station 
not far below it. The train stopped 
at a farm house where a dozen 
women were waiting with pies 
to sell, berry & apple pies. They 
were rather inferior looking. The 
most of them foreigners - The French 
girls were as sharp as needles.
The country passed through was 
swampy to a considerable extent. 
All woods most some high land 
through where corn and cotton was 
planted & growing nicely. The land 
seems to be some clayey, yet loamy. 
   As we approach Corinth 
breastworks secesh were seen 
near the RR and a deep cut 

(p. 129)
was passed through where the 
land presented in the cut an 
appearance altogether curious. It 
was glistening & sparkling with 
small, very small bright stones 
mixed with the clay. No stones 
are to be seen. Corinth was reached 
at noon. I knew that once it 
must have been a very business 
place. The Depot of the Mobile & O 
RR has been burned as well as 
a large brick building. How much 
else I know not. I shall judge 
it contained 600 pop. Now all 
the business houses are used as 
commissary buildings for U.S. 
Such a stench as arises from the 
provisions burned by the Secesh 
is scarcely endurable. Soon orders 
were received to proceed 4 miles 
SE to camp. We started &

(p. 130)
traveled at a good pace. Passed 
Reg after Reg of Ill & O boys till 
a whole Division were passed. 
   Genl Rosecranz would have 
nothing to do with us the Kans 
troops,--for said he--they are thieves
& robbers -undisciplined & rough 
but regular tigers to fight. 
So every Commander bluffed 
us off until we reached the 
land of Jeff where we stopped 
for the night. No tents were p
itched. All slept on the ground. 
Supper was cooked after a while 
which was greedily swallowed. 
   I was detailed for guard 
even if tired & unwilling to go. 
   We are quartered in the 
woods, a lovely place. All 
the troops here are in the 
woods where the land is 

(p. 131)
rolling, where water is good and 
where the utmost cleanliness is 
presented. Straglers continue to 
come in. The whereabouts of the 
Southern Army is unknown & 
hunting for them is of no use. 
   Everything goes as regular 
as clockwork & the General is overly 

Friday July 4th 1862
   Oh! what a lovely day--- the 
glorious Fourth! Day of enthusi-
asm and rejoicing. We all hail 
thee with hearts burning with 
patriotic fire. Cannons boomed 
all day in honor of this eventful 
day - speeches were made in some 
Regts. Cheers were utter. News 
from Little Mac were received 
of an exciting nature which 
altogether made the day lively.

(p. 132)
Sat July 5th 1862
   The thermometer must in
icate 100 degrees above zero for 
a mere scorching sun I 
never turned my back up to. 
This has been a general day 
of cleaning up, and making prep-
arations for easy sleeping. All 
in our tent have made bunks 
of limbs to sleep using pine 
foliage for feathers. I would 
not wish for a better bed 
at present. We are all greatly re-
joiced at the favorable news 
from McClelland who is grad-
ually advancing on to Richmond 
with surety. - our Brigadier 
arrived in the afternoon bring-
ing with them an Inspection Genl 
to inspect our Batallion who 
was pleased paying us a compliment 
at our appearance.

(p. 133)
Sunday July 6th 1862
   This is a perfect cessation of 
clear warm weather. Early in 
the morn with Ed & John Long 
I went to the 51st Ills. to see C 
McHenry and other friends. It was 
real refreshing to see some whom 
I once new. It takes one back to 
the past so easily recalling to 
mind recollections of other days. 
   Every encampment appears 
very neat, all the turf is dug off 
and cleanly swept. Bunks are built 
all is comfortable. What an ex-
tensive piece of timber, thousands 
of acres rolling of pine in some 
ridges, oak and walnut. The ravines 
abounding in springs of water 
living and pure. I do love this 
position for camping. If one 
only keep healthy.

(p. 134)
Monday July 7th 1862
The news from Richmond are u
pon the whole in our favor. 
even if repulsed over them. 
Six days of incessant fighting 
has though destroyed thousands 
of lives istimate 15,000 at 
T. We marched for our new 
camping ground with our all 
on our backs 1˝ off. I for one 
nearly feinted coming up that 
hill. Our camp now occupies 
the same one that some Ill 
troops did. It was no trouble 
to fix our sleeping cradles for 
plenty were found all made.
   What dreadful warm weather! 
It is pleasant though. I 
would like to hear from home. 
   Why don’t I? Papers are 
received every day. 

(p. 135)
Our comforts - in regard to eat-
ables are,(what we get from 
Uncle Sam) the same, coffee 
hard crackers, beans & rice 
over and over. I get sick of 
such monotonous dishes. By 
going two or three miles black 
berries can be found. Now 
and then those who have money 
can get delicacies from Sutler 
but prices with him are to 
great to indulge much. I 
presume that after a while veg
etables from the Q M will 
be received then something pal-
atable can be fixed. Plenty 
such as it is reigns. The Negro 
question agitates contemptiously 
the minds of the great bulk 
of the army here. Why by our 
actions create such confusion.

(p. 136)
Tuesday July 8th 1862
   Very warm again, almost en-
ough to melt a person yet at 
times the sun felt oh! so good. 
I had the ague which accounts 
for such feelings. I felt very 
bad all day. I retired early.

Wednesday July 9th 1862
   No changes -save that is was 
cloudy a little. I felt better 
the most of the day. The Battery Kan 
1st & 7th arrived -the train too. 
   Our Brigadier (R.B. Mitchel) 
was put under arrest for allow-
ing the reported outrages (which 
are false) to be commited. Without 
interference Halleck himself & 
all his Ill & Iowa & Ohio troops are 
suspicious of us for we belong 
to a Kans. Reg and just be-
cause the Kansas 7th has been 

(p. 137)
unjust rough in the way of 
stealing we are so charged. It 
is a hard pill to swallow, but if 
they don’t like our style let them 
muster us out as has been threa-
tened. I do wish they would. Every 
officer in the Brigade would resign 
if their companys could. A 
dreadful state of affairs exists.

Wednesday July 9th 1862
   The sky clouded. It rained in 
the afternoon some. I felt quite 
down. A disturbance of some 
kind is brewing for privacy and 
consultation is common. The 
news from Richmond is in 
our favor. I think the loss 
of the rebels being greater. 
   Now our armies are resting 
for more rigorous exertion. 
I retired amidst thunder and lightening.

(p. 138)
Thursday July 10th 1862
It is very monotonous now. 
We have a sutter who furnish-
es many goodies at exorb-
itant prices. I keep about 
the same. News from little 
McC are very favorable for 
we are whipping them like 

Friday July 11th  1862
   Everyone says the weather 
is uncommonly cool for this state. 
The nights are cool & com-
fortable as one pleases.

Saturday July 12 62
   How cool & agreeable the 
weather, cool nights. I felt 
better till night when this 
ague again attacked me & 
I felt as bad as ever 
so lame.

(p. 139)
Thursday August 14th 1862
   Since my last writing I 
have been unable to keep 
up my diary on account 
of ill health -sickness.
   If I remember correctly 
I was taken to the Genl 
Hospital at Farmington Miss 
on the 20th ult with the Fever 
and Ague from which I soon 
recovered. The Typhoid Fever 
than attacked me and for 
about 7 days I was unconscious 
of what was going on. The 
fever left me in a very re-
duced state of Physical health 
so that I was almost entirely 
helpless. As soon as I had 
gained a little strength 
I with hundreds more rem-
oved to Northern Hospitals. 

(p. 140)
I having been sent to 
Camp Benton St. Louis. 
   I never shall forget how 
killing the ride was from 
Farmington to Hamburg 
in that government wagon 
drawn by six mules, over 
the corduroy or log roads 
slam bang. I was very 
weak and I veryily believe 
if we had not had a bottle 
of “Old Bourbon” we would 
all have died. Oh! dear 
me I can imagine how I 
felt and was wracked about 
first one side and then 
the other of the wagon.
   I came here via Tenn 
River - (a beautiful stream 
romantic) Ohio and Miss. 
The hospital I am in 

(p. 141)
is located on the Fair 
Grounds about 4 miles 
from the business portion 
of St. Louis. It was used (the 
building) last fall as a 
genl recruiting office. The 
room we occupy is an ob-
long circle lighted on the
 sides and at the top of 
the room. Trees surround 
and shade us on all sides 
other near buildings are 
in plain sight. The am-
fitheater is close by, a nice 
place to go to walk. A more 
appropriate place or location
for a Hospital could not 
be found. So retired it is. 
On the way here and since 
I came here which was 
on the 7th inst. I have 

(p. 142)
had a large abscess on 
the side of my face. It 
is better now. I am still 
very weak though on the 
gain. Today I feel rather 
lazy. Now a Regt of soldiers 
are passing by marching by 
the energetic music of the 
fife and drum  There are 
67 sick or convalescent ones 
here, none very sick. Some-
times I get uneasy but I 
try to keep up good spirits. 
It rained a little this morn.

Friday Aug 15th 1862
   A very cool day. It has rained 
around us a considerable 
most certainly. I am gain-
ing strength and improving 
generally as fastly as I 
could expect. I saw a stick 

(p. 143)
or two of wood every morn for 
exercise. Even one stick worked 
into makes my arms ache as 
much as if I had sawed or 
chopped a half a day when well. 
I have no muscle now at 
all. I weigh only 108 lbs. - making 
40 lbs loss of flesh since last 

Saturday Aug 16th 1862
   Still cool yet sunny. I walked 
a considerable in the after-
noon. Nothing worthy of note 

Sun. August 17th 1862
The weather more mild than 
for days past. I felt quite dum-
pish all day for want of exer-
cise I think. The most of the 
sick ones are doing well, some 
are imprudent though.

(p. 144)
Monday Aug 18th 1862
   Bright and pleasant. I have 
felt pretty well all day, more 
energetic. I can see that I 
am gaining. I am thankful 
that prospects are so favorable. 
We all the sick here were 
mustered for pay in the forenoon.

Tuesday August 19th  1862
   A more beautiful day we have 
not had for a good spell. It 
was sunny but agreeable to be 
out. I was sent to the board-
ing house to eat on the hearty 
table. We had for dinner boiled 
beef, boiled cabbage, potatoes &
 bread. Oh! how well the cabbage. 
The first that I have had in 
many months - did relish. For 
supper we had beets & tomatoes & cabbie 

(p. 145)
vegetables. I do relish and 
never grow tired of. In the 
afternoon I shaved my whiskers
 all off. It left my face look-
ing rather thin.

Wednesday August 20th 1862
   Somehow or other this has been 
a muggy day with me. I 
roamed about a great deal. 
   The eve gratified me 
with two letters, one from home 
and one from J-. It had been 
a long time since I had heard 
from either. 

Thursday Aug 21st 1862
   Every rain sign indicates rain. 
At noon the havens darkened 
but here the clouds seemed to 
be gusty ones yet it rained 
enough to nicely settle the 
dust. I am feeling quite well.

(p. 146)
Friday Jul Aug. 22 1862
   A pleasant sunny day. I am 
feeling a little disinclined 
to exsrcise enough for the 
diet I have, consequently dull-
ness is the consequence. I 
would like some of the vari-
eties of life such as corn,
cake, pie, different kind 
of meat, fruits etc. but all 
such if I have must buy &
at present that I can not 

Saturday August 23d 1862
   Rather yes quite cool in the 
morn. I could scarcely keep 
warm. I feel a dullness 
as the day previous. It must 
be caused by the diet I 
now have. I am quite sure.

(p. 147)
Sunday Aug 24th 1862
Very comfortable all day. I 
felt really out of tune. There 
was preaching at the amfi-
theater but such a contin
uous heavy tramp of green 
soldiers, which were coming 
to hear preaching all the while 
destroyed the interest of the 
discourse for me.

Monday Aug 25th 1862
   Warmer a considerable & 
I am feeling a considerable 
better too. Although some 
cause from my cold.

Sept 1st 1862 Monday
   We had a refreshing shower 
last night that inspires this 
morning all with new life 
and vigor. Brother Frank 

(p. 148)
has been with me the 
past 3 days. His sudden 
arrival was very unexpected 
and it created joy within my 
heart only known to myself.
He left this morn. I have 
felt decidedly better also 
for some days back. My cold 
having been gradually work-
ing off. In afternoon had 
a fever which did not go 
off till dark. Late in the 
eve or after 9 o’clock we were 
startled by the groans of a 
soldier who had been shot 
for attempting to run the 
guards. He was brought 
here. A nice cool breeze 
has blown all day. Get 
where there is no wind, 
it is very warm.

(p. 149)
Saturday Sept 6th 1862
   The most of the time since I 
last wrote I have not felt 
very well - a kind of mixture of 
fever and ague. It has been 
pleasant the most of the 
time. Has rained some etc. 
   My appetite is not very good 
for such as we have to eat.
   In the eve it rained very 
hard indeed and a great deal 
cooling the atmosphere making 
all more agreeable and fresh.

Sunday Sept 7, 1862
   Cool and fall like. I have felt 
good to day, better than for 
some time. I am in hopes 
that now I shall get along 
well & fastly. This is good 
weather for gaining.

(p. 150)
Monday Sept 8th 1862
   Still fall like. cool though 
the day & sunny & cool nights.
   I have felt quite like myself 
all day, rather more vigorous 
and lively. I was surprised in 
the morn or last eve by the 
swollen condition of my feet 
caused by weakness only so 
the Dr. says.

Friday Sept 12th 1862
   Real cold this morn. It 
rained most all day yes-
terday very hard at times & 
easy. I have been sawing 
wood this week for the cook 
room and have eaten with 
the Dr. and nurses where board 
is good and as at home. I 
hope I shall be able to 
stand it.

(p. 151)
Sat Sept 13th /62
   The sun appears again and 
the weather is more mild than 
yesterday. I can’t imagine 
what makes me so sleepy. 
   I think I am slowly on 
the improve since having 
come in here to work & dine. 
   If I only can get every organ 
in a healthy state.

Sunday Sept 14, 62
I have felt pretty well as 
usual getting tired before 
night although I do but 

Tuesday Sept 16th 1862 

(Date was written in but no entry for this day)

[Sergeant Herbert E. Cotes died September 24, 1862.]

(pp. 152-169 blank)

(p. 170)
William H. Williamson
The cook at Ward
No C Benton Barra
-cks St. Louis MO
  Don’t forget me
Sargent    When
you get a way
here if you pleas

(pp. 171-214 blank)

(p. 124 – out of sequence)
Photograph account	D
Nelson Sheppard		  50
Josiah Sheppard		  50
Arthur Welding		  50
Aaron Kesy Kendall	  50
James Robinson		  50
Asa Spurlock		1.00
L. Mulnix		  50
Corp Hurd		1.50
Orderly Slemmons	  50
Whirten Kinsey		  50
Jesse Slaman		  50
John Noak		  50
John Long		  50
E Adams			1.00
J English		  50
N Martin		1.00
E Joslin		  50
T Ball			 .50
Sept 1 Frank lent me	1.50

(p. 217-220 Memorandum starting with page 220 and writing backward)
(p. 220)
Apr. 19	Received a letter from Home
“	21	Received a paper from Mrs. Green
“	25	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	26	Mailed a letter to R. B. J.
and a paper too
“	28	Received a letter from Eli
“	28	Received a letter from Frank
“	30	Mailed a letter to Frank
“	30	Received a letter from Home
May	1	Mailed a paper to Eddie
“	1	Mailed a letter to Nahurn
“	4	Mailed a paper to Mother
“	4	Rec’d a letter from Aunt Lil
“	7	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	7	Mailed a letter to Eli
“	9	Recd a letter from Jennie
“	9	Recd a letter from Mother
“	9	Recd a letter from Ford
“	9	Recd a letter from Wheeler
“	10	Mailed a paper to Barber

(p. 219)
May	9	Mailed a paper to Metcalf
“	9	Mailed a paper to Frank
“	11	Mailed a paper to Eli
“	12	Mailed a letter to Jennie
“	12	Mailed a letter to Ford
“	12	Mailed a letter to Wheeler
“	19	Rec’d a letter from Jennie
“	23	Rec’d a letter from R.B.J.
“	23	Rec’d a letter from Home
“	23	Rec’d a letter from Mrs. Green
“	24	Rec’d a letter from Jerome
“	24	Rec’d a letter from Home.
“	26	Mailed a letter to Jennie
“	26	Mailed a letter to Mrs. Green
“	26	Mailed a letter to Frank
June 	 1	Mailed a letter to Mother
    	 1	Mailed a letter to Jennie
	 5	Mailed a letter to Mother
     	 5 	Mailed a letter to Jennie
     	 6 	Mailed a letter to Jen
“	10	Received a letter from Eli
(p. 218)
June 10	Rec’d a letter from Gard
“	  11	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	  12	Mailed a letter to Mrs. Green
“	  13	Mailed a letter to Jennie
“	  17	Rec’d a letter from Frank
“	  17	Rec’d a letter from Irene
“	  20	Mailed a letter to Frank
“	  23	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	  29	Mailed a letter to Jennie
July	   4	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	   7	Rec’d a letter from Mother
“	  10	Mailed a letter to Jennie
Aug	  10	Mailed a letter to Jennie
Aug 	   9	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	  11	Mailed a letter to Capt.
“	  14	Mailed a letter to Frank
“	  15	Mailed a letter to Barber
“	  20	Mailed a letter to Mrs. Green
“	  20	Rec’d a letter from Mother
“	  21	Rec’d a letter from Jennie
“	  21	Mailed a letter to Jennie

(p. 217)
Aug  21	Mailed a letter to Joslin
“	  22	Rec’d a letter from Mrs. Green
“	  24	Mailed a letter to Mother
“	  29	Rec’d a letter from Barber
Sep	   4	Rec’d a letter from Mother
“	   3	Mailed a letter to Jennie
“	   8	Mailed a letter to Eli
“	  11	Rec’d a letter from Jennie
“	  13	Rec’d a letter from Frank
“	  13	Rec’d a letter from Jerome
“	  17	Rec’d a lett
“	  17	Mailed a letter to Josiah
(p. 221)
Postage money rec’d of
Col Graham
Apr. 23d ------- .50

(p. 222)
Herbert E. Cotes
	New Woodstock
		Madison Co.
			New York
(Inside back cover)

McDonald	Co. K
McCauley	Co. K
Megonigil	Co. K
Lillie		Co. K
Lucas		Co. K
Kemper		Co. K
Dorris		Co. K
Hentz		Co. K

JA Robinson	Co. I
JY Robinson	Co. I
J Shanks	Co. I
R Pinkerton	Co. H
J English	Co. I
North		Co. H
S Harper	Co. I
W Sherman	Co. I
N Williams 	Co. I
M Mullen	Co. K
  Jeffrey	Co. K
  Hardison 	Co. I

(Outside back cover)
Herbert E. Cotes
	Kansas 8th reg. 
		Company I
		April 20th, ‘62

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