. . .






p. 388


This county was formed from Chenango, March 21, 1806, and named in honor of President Madison. That part of Stockbridge E. of Oneida Creek was annexed from Oneida in 1836. It is situated in the central part of the State, is centrally distant 98 mi. from Albany, and contains an area of 670 sq. mi. The extreme N. part is low, level and swampy; but the central and S. parts are hilly, and constitute a portion of the general system of highlands which occupy Central New York. The hills generally have rounded outlines and steep declivities, their highest summits being 500 to 80 ft. above the valleys and 900 to 1,200 ft. above tide. The highlands are divided into separate ridges by a series of valleys extending N. and S., and they form the watershed between Susquehanna River and Oneida Lake. The principal streams upon the N. slope are Chittenango1 Creek, forming a part of the W. boundary of the co., Oneida Creek, forming a part of the E. boundary, and the Canaserasa,2 Canastota,3 and Cowaselon Creeks; and the principal flowing S. are Unadilla River, upon the E. Border, Beaver Creek, Chenango River and its branches, Otselic4 Creek, and Tioghnioga River. The principal bodies of water are Oneida Lake, forming the N. boundary, and Owahgena or Cazenovia Lake, near the center of the W. border. The latter, a beautiful sheet of water, 4 mi. long, is 900 ft. above tide, and is completely surrounded by gradually sloping hillsides. The lowest rocks of the co., outcrossing along Oneida Lake, belong to the Clinton group. The red iron ore peculiar to this group is found to a limited extent, but not in sufficient quantities to render mining profitable. Next above this successively appear the Niagara and Onondaga groups, underlying the whole swampy region.5 The red shales form the surface rock S. of the swamp, and beds of gypsum extend along the base of the hills. These beds are extensively quarried in some secions, and furnish an excellent quality of plaster. Upon the N. declivities of the hills successively appear the water limestone, Pentameros limestone, Oriskany sandstone, and Onondaga limestone. From these groups are obtained an abundance of waterlime, quicklime, and building stone, all of excellent quality. Next above appear the Marcellus and Hamilton shales, covering more than one-half of the entire surface of the co. The Tully limestone, Genesee slate, and Ithaca groups are found to a limited extent covering the tops of the southern hills. A large share of the co. is covered deep with drift deposits. The soil upon the flat lands of the N. is generally a red clay, with great quantities of much and marl in the swampy regions. Upon the northern declivities of the hills the soil is a gravelly loam intermixed with lime and plaster, and is very productive. Farther S. the soil upon the hills is a clayey, gravelly, and shaly loam, best adapted to pasturage, and in the valleys a gravely loam and alluvium. The people are principally engaged in stock raising and dairying. Hops are largely cultivated. Manufacturers are principally confined to two or three villages.

The co. seat is located at Morrisville. The courthouse is a two story wooden building, pleasantly situated on a small park, fronting on a main street. It was built in 1849, and contains the court6 and jury rooms.7 The clerk’s office is a small, brick, fire-proof building adjoining the courthouse. The jail was burned in the winter of 1858. The poorhouse is located upon a farm of 135 acres near Eaton village, 5 mi. S.E. of Morrisville. The average number of inmates is 130, supported at a cost of 56 cts. per week each. A school is taught during the whole year. The farm yields a revenue of $1,500.8 The principal public works in the co. are the Erie Canal and the N.Y. Central


1Meaning “waters divide and run N.” Seaver, in “The life of Mary Jemison,” says it is a corruption of the Oneida word “Chu-de-nääny," signifying "where the sun shines out."

2 Meaning "Big Elkshorn."  Seaver gives it as "Ka-na-so-wa-ga," signifying "several strings of beads with a string lying across."

3 Ka-ne-to-ta," signifying "pine tree standing alone."

4 Meaning "Capfull"

5 In the marsh near Canastota a brine spring is found. A boring of 190 ft. was made here; but the water obtained was not sufficiently strong to warrant the further prosecution of the work.

6 The first courts were held alternatively at the "schoolhouse near David Barnard's, in Sullivan, [now Lenox,] and at the schoolhouse in the village of Hamilton." The first officers were Peter Smith, First Judge; Sylvanus Smalley, Edward Green, Elisha Payne, and David Cook, Associate Judges; Asa B. Sizer, Co. Clerk; Jeremiah Whipple, Sheriff; and Thos. H. Hubbard, Surrogate. In 1810, Cazenovia was selected as the site of the co. buildings, and Col. Lincklaen and Capt. Jackson were appointed to superintend the building of the courthouse.  A brick building was erected, and the first court was held in it in Jan. 1812. In 1817 the co. seat was removed to Morrisville, and the first court was held there Oct. 7, 1817.

7 Ellis Moss, Sam'l White, and Oliver Pool were appointed to superintend the erection of the courthouse.

8 This institution consists of three two story stone buildings; the poorhouse proper, a lunatic asylum, and a hospital.


p. 389


R.R., extending through Lenox and Sullivan. Among the hills are several large artificial reservoirs, used as feeders for the canal. Cazenovia Lake is used for the same purpose.

There are seven weekly newspapers published in the co.1

Nearly all the S. half of the county belonged to the tract known as the “Chenango Twenty Towns.”2 A strip lying between this tract and the Military Tract, including DeRuyter and the greater part of Cazenovia, was embraced in the Lincklaen Purchase. The Oneida Indian Reservation, originally embracing all the N. part of the co., was subsequently divided into several large tracts. The “New Petersburgh Tract,” or purchase of Peter Smith, includes nearly all of Smithfield and Fenner, the N. part of Cazenovia, and a strip a mile wide across the S. part of Stockbridge. The remainder of Stockbridge was included in the reservation of the Stockbridge Indians. Lenox and Sullivan constituted the N.W. portion of the Oneida Indian Reservation. The first settlements were made by squatters upon the Oneida Reservation, in 1790.3 The permanent settlements were commenced about 1795, and the co. rapidly filled up with immigrants, principally from New England.


1The Madison Freeholder was commenced at Peterboro, before or in the early part of 1808, by Jonathan Bunce & Co. It soon after appeared as

The Freeholder, and was continued until 1813. It was then changed to

The Madison County Herald, and was continued several years.

The Christian and Citizen was published at Peterboro, in 1854, by Pruyn & Walker.

The Pilot was established in Cazenovia, in Aug. 1808, by Oran S. Baker, and continued until Aug. 1823.

The Republican Monitor was started at Cazenovia, in Sept. 1823, by L. L. Rice. It was published by John F. Fairchild from April, 1825, until Jan. 1832, by J. W. Fairchild & Son until July, 1840, and by J. F. Fairchild until March 4, 1841, when it was discontinued.

The Students Miscellany, semi-mo., was published at Cazenovia, in 1831, by A. Owen and L. Kidder.

The Union Herald was commended in May, 1835, by L. Myrick and E. W. Clark. In 1836 Clark withdrew; and in 1840 the paper was discontinued.

The Cazenovia Democrat was started in Sept. 1836, by J. W. Chubbuck & Co.; it was edited by J. W. Dwinelle. In Feb. 1837, it was discontinued.

The Madison County Eagle was commenced at Cazenovia, in Feb. 1840 by Cyrus O. Pool. In 1841 it was published by Thos. S. Myrick and W. H. Phillips. In June 1842, Myrick withdrew; and in May, 1845, its name was changed to

The Madison County Whig. In Aug. 1848, Phillips was succeeded by H. A. Cooledge, by whom the paper was changed to

The Madison County News, in Oct. 1853. In May, 1854, it was again changed to

The Madison County Whig; and in Jan. 1857, it was discontinued.

The Abolitionist was started at Cazenovia, in 1841, by Luther Myrick; and continued 2 years.

The Madison and Onondaga Abolitionist was published in 1843, by Luther Myrick.

The Madison Republic was commenced at Cazenovia, in Jan. 1850, by Wh. H. Phillips, and continued about 3 months.

The Cazenovia Gazette was published in April, 1853, by Baker & Debnam, from Oct. 1851, until May, 1852.

The Progressive Christian was established in April, 1858, by A. Pryne, and was continued 2 years.

The Cazenovia Republican was commenced May 1, 1854, by Seneca Lake, its present publisher.

The Gazettte and Madison County Advertiser was established at Peterboro in May, 1817, by John B. Johnson and son. It was removed to Morrisville in 1819, and discontinued in 1822.

The Madison Observer was commenced at Cazenovia, in Jan. 1821, by Rice & Hale. It was removed to Morrisville in 1822; and in 1824 Bennett Bicknell became its publisher. In 1829 it was united with The Hamilton Recorder, and was issued as

The Observer and Recorder. In 1832 it passed into the hands of H. C. Bicknell and Jas. Norton, and in 1834 into those of Jas. Norton. In 1835 it was changed to

The Madison Observer. In 1839 J. and E. Norton became its publishers and in 1856 Edward Norton, by whom it is still published.

The Hamilton Recorder was started in 1817, by John G. Stower and P. B. Havens. In 1819 it passed into the hands of Stower & Williams, and afterward into those of John P. Van Sice. In 1829 it was removed to Morrisville and united with The Observer.

The Madison Farmer was published at Hamilton, in 1828, by Nathaniel King.

The Civilian was started July 27, 1830, by Lauren Dewey. In Feb. 1831, it passed into the hands of Lewison Fairchild, and in Nov. 1831, it was discontinued.

The Hamilton Courier was commenced by G. R. Waldron, in Feb. 1834, and the following year it appeared as

The Hamilton Courier and Madison C. Advertiser. It was continued until 1838.

The Hamilton Palladium was started in 1838, by John Atwood, and continued 6 years, a part of the time by J. & D. Atwood.

The Hamilton Eagle was published in 1839, by G. R. Waldron.

The Literary Visitor was published at Hamilton about 3 months, in 1842, by Dennis Redman.

The Democratic Reflector was started at Hamilton by G. R. Waldron, in 1842, and was published by Waldron & Baker from 1843 until 1854, and 2 years by Waldron alone, when it was united with The Madison Co. Journal, and appeared as

The Democratic Republican. It is now published by Waldron & James.

The Madison County Journal was commenced in Sept. 1849, by E. F. & C. B. Gould. W. W. Chubbuck, F. F. Fisher, and T. L. James were afterward interested in its publication; and in 1856 it was united with The Democratic Reflector.

The Mill Boy and The Polker were published during the campaign of 1844, the former at the Palladium and the latter at the Reflector office.

The Land Mark was published as a campaign paper in 1850.

The New York State Radii was removed from Fort Plain, Montgomery co., in 1854, by L. S. Backus, and continued about 18 months, when it was returned to Fort Plain.

The Democratic Union was commenced at Hamilton, in 1856, by Levi S. Backus; and in 1857 it passed into the hands of W. H. Baker, its present publisher.

The Canastota Register was published in 1830, by Silas Judd and H. B. Mattison, and in 1831 by H. S. Merritt.

The Canastota Times was commenced in 1857, by Geo. H. Merriam, and was discontinued the following year.

The Canastota Eagle was started Nov. 4, 1858, by J. E. N. Backus, its present publisher.

The Chittenango Herald was established in 1832, by Isaac Lyon, and was published successively as

The Chittenango Republican,

The Phoenix, and

The Democratic Gazette, until 1856, when it was discontinued.

The DeRuyter Herald was published in 1835, by W. W. Mason.

The Protestant Sentinel was brought from Schenectady to DeRuyter in Nov. 1836, and was published by J. & C. H. Maxon until the fall of 1837. It then passed into the hands of Wm. D. Dochran, by whom it was issued as

The Protestant Sentinel and Seventh Day Baptist Journal. In Feb. 1840, Joel Green became its publisher, and changed it to

The Seventh Day Baptist Register. In 1841 it passed into the hands of James Bailey, by whom it was continued until 1845.

The National Banner was commenced at DeRuyter in Oct. 1847, by A. C. Hill, and continued 2 years.

The Central New Yorker was published at DeRuyter, by E. F. & C. B. Gould, from Sept. 1848, until May, 1851.

The Runner of the Times was started at DeRuyter, by Walker & Hill, and continued until 1855.

The Oneida Telegraph was commenced at Oneida, in Sept. 1851, by D. H. Frost. In June, 1854, it passed into the hands of John Crawford, and was changed to

The Oneida Sachem, under which name it is still published.

The Circular was established in 1852, and is published weekly at the Oneida Community.

2The following is a list of these townships within the limits of this co.:

Nelson ….No. 1.

Eaton……. “    2.

Madison….      3.

Hamilton …     4.

Lebanon….      5.

Georgetown…   6.

Brookfield….    19 & 20.


The Canastota Tract in this co. was granted in lieu of the school lots reserved in the “Twenty Towns;” but by some oversight was sold with those lands.

3See page 461. [From p. 461: The Oneidas reserved a large tract of land in the treaty of 1788, but ceded portions in 1795, 1798, 1802, 1807, 1809, 1810, 1811, 1815, 1817, 1824, 1826, 1827, and 1840, when they finally ceded the last of their lands held in common and received individual portions. Most of them have emigrated to Wisconsin; and but about 60 now live in this co.--Census of 1855, pp. 500, 503, 513.]


p. 390


BROOKFIELD—was formed from Paris, (Oneida co.,) March 5, 1795; and Columbus (Chenango co.) was taken off in 1805. It is the S.E. corner town of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by the Unadilla River and Beaver Creek. Unadilla River forms the E. boundary. Beaver Creek flows through near the center, and the E. branch of the Chenango through the N.W. part. Several smaller streams take their rise in the town. The soil is a gravelly loam. Clarkville,1 (Brookfield p.o.,) incorp. April 5, 1834, contains 2 churches, the Brookfield Academy, a hoe and fork manufactory, gristmill, and tannery. Pop. 578. Leonardsville (p.v.) contains 1 church, a bank, and several manufactories.2 Pop. 366. North Brookfield (p.v.) has 275 inhabitants. South Brookfield (p.o) is a hamlet, and De Lancy3 a p.o. The first settlement was made by Daniel Brown, in 1791.4 The census reports 6 churches in town.5

CAZENOVIA6—was formed from Paris and Whitestown, (Oneida co.) March 5, 1795. De Ruyter was taken off in 1798, Sullivan in 1803, Smithfield and Nelson in 1807, and a part of Fenner in 1823. It is the central town upon the W. border of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the valleys of Chittenango and Limestone Creeks. The summits of the hills are 300 to 500 feet above the valleys. Owahgena or Cazenovia Lake, in the N. part of the town, is a beautiful sheet of water about 4 mi. long. Its outlet—Chittenango Creek—forms a part of the boundary between this town and Fenner. In its course it has a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of valuable mill sites. At the Chittenango Fall the water plunges in a beautiful cascade perpendicularly over a lodge of limestone rock 136 feet in height. Limestone Creek flows from across the S. part of the town. Hydraulic and common limestone are quarried near Chittenango Falls. The soil in the N. and central parts is a gravelly loam, and in the S. a clayey loam underlaid by hardpan. Cazenovia, (p.v.) incorp. Feb. 7, 1810, is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek, at the foot of Cazenovia Lake. It contains 7 churches, an academy,7 a bank, and several manufactories.8 Pop. 1177. New Woodstock (p.v.) contains 2 churches and 273 inhabitants. Chittenango Falls is a p.o. Settlement was commenced in 1793, by John Lincklaen, from Amersterdam, Holland.9 The first church (Presb.) was organized May 17, 1799, with 5 members; and the Rev. Joshua Leonard was the first pastor. The census reports 9 churches in town.10

DE RUYTER11—was formed from Cazenovia, March 15, 1798. Georgetown was taken off in 1815, and German (Chenango co.) in 1806. It is the s.w. corner town of the co. Its surface consists of hilly upland, broken by the valley of Tioughnioga River. The summits of the hills are 400 to 500 ft. above the valleys. The principal streams are Tioughnioga River and its tributaries. The soil is a gravelly and sandy loam on the hills and alluvium in the valleys. DeRuyter, (p.v.,) incorp. April 15, 1833, contains 3 churches, an academy,12 and several manufactories.13 Pop. 727. Sheds Corners is a p.o. The first settlers were Elijah and Elias Benjamin and Eli Colgove, in 1793.14 The first church (Bap.) was formed by Elder Joel Butler, Nov. 5, 1799.15

EATON16—was formed from Hamilton, Feb. 6, 1807. It is an interior town, situated near the center of the co. The surface is a rolling upland, broken by the valley of Chenango River into two ridges, whose summits are 400 to 600 ft. in height. The Chenango flows S. through the center. The outlet of the Eaton Resevoir flows through a deep, narrow ravine, and affords a large number of valuable mill sites. Hatche Lake and Bradley Brook Reservoir, and several smaller reservoirs, are in this town. The soil is a gravelly loam, intermixed with clay in the valleys. Morrisville,17 (p.v.,) situated on Chenango River, was incorp. April 13, 1819. It contains 3


1Named from Joseph Clark, formerly State Senator.

2A fork manufactory, gristmill, sawmill, and tannery.

3Named from John De Lancy.

4 John and Elias Button, Lawton Palmer, Saml. H. Burdick, Saml. Billings, David Maine, Stephen Collins, Thos. and James Rogers, and Paul and Perry Maxson settled in the town in 1792. Stephen Hoxie, Simeon, Nathaniel, and Eleazer Brown, Henry Clark, Robert Randall, Asa Frink, Ethan, Oliver, and Phineas Babcock, Ira and Nathan Burdick, and Youman York were also early settlers. John Button built the first gristmill, in 1792; and Reuben Leonard opened the first store, in 1801. The first school was taught by Asa Carrier, in the winter of 1796-97.

5  Seventh Day Bap., 2 M. E., Bap., Univ

6 Named from Theophilus Cazenove, the first general agent of the Holland Land Company.

7 The Oneida Conference Seminary is a large and flourishing institution under the care of the Methodist denomination.

8 In and near Cazenovia, on Chittenango Creek, are a woolen factory, paper mill, oil mill, town clock factory, furnace, machine shop, 2 gristmills and a sawmill.

9 Archibald Bates, Wm. Gillett, Wm. Miles, Benj. Pierson. Noah Taylor, Saml. S. Forman, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubael Brooks, and others named Tyler and Auger settled in the town in 1793; and Joseph Simms, Isaac Moss, Gideon Freeman, and David Fay soon after. The first birth was that of a child of Noah Taylor, in 1794. John Lincklaen built the first saw and grist mills, in 1794.

10 2 Bap., 2 M.E., Cong., Presb., Prot. E., Union and Univ.

11 Named from Admiral DeRuyter of the Dutch Navy.

12 The DeRuyter Institute is under the care of the Seventh Day Baptist denomination.

13 2 tanneries, 2 sawmills, a gristmill, oil mill, furnace, and cabinetware manufactory.

14 Joseph Messenger and Sam'l Thomson settled in the town in 1795. Darius Benjamin, Justus, Jeremiah, and Ebenezer Gage and Daniel Page were also early settlers. The first birth was that of Frederick Benjamin, about 1798; Joseph Messenger opening the first inn in 1796; Samuel Bowen kept the first store; Joseph Rich built the first sawmill, in 1807, and the first gristmill in 1809. The first school was taught by Eli Gage, in the winter of 1799.

15 There are 6 churches in town; 2 Friends, and 1 each Bap., Seventh Day Bap., M.E., and Presb.

16 Named from Gen. Wm. Eaton, commander of the U.S. military forces in the expedition to Tripoli.

17 Named from a family of early settlers in town.


p. 391


churches, a newspaper office, and several manufactories.1 Pop. 715. Eaton, (p.v.,) commonly called “Log City,” contains 3 churches and several manufactories.2 Pop. 510. West Eaton, (p.v.,) commonly called “Leeville,” contains 2 churches, a woolen factory, sawmill, and about 40 hours; and Pratts Hollow3 (p.v.) 1 church and about 20 houses. Pine Woods is a p.o. Settled in 1792, by John and James Salisbury, from Vt.; but the first permanent settler was Joshua Leland, from Sherburn, Mass., in 1793.4 The first church (Presb.) was formed in 1805.5

FENNER6—was formed from Cazenovia and Smithfield, April 22, 1823. It is an interior town, lying N.W. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland. Oneida, Canaseraga, and Chittenango Creeks have their sources in this town. The latter forms a part of its W. boundary. Extensive marl beds are found; and on the bank of Chittenango Creek calcareous tufa is quarried and burned into lime. The soil is a gravelly and clayey loam. Perryville, (p.v.,) partly in this town, contains 2 churches and 25 houses. Fenner (p.o.) is a hamlet. The first settlement was made about the year 1793.7 The first church (Bap.) was organized Aug. 23, 1801.8

GEORGETOWN—was formed by DeRuyter, April 7, 1815. It lies upon the S. border of the co., w of the center. The surface is a illy upland, broken by the valley of Otselic Creek into two ridges. The summits of the hills are 500 to 600 ft. above the valleys. The principal streams are Otselic Creek and its branches. The soil upon the hills is yellow loam, and in the valleys a gravelly allumium. Georgetown (p.v.) contains 3 churches, and has a population of 280. The first settlement was made by Ezra Sexton, in 1804.9 Lewis Anathe Muller, a French refugee, settled in the town about 1810, and remained until the redstoration of Louis Philippe.10 The first religious services were conducted by Ezra Sexton, at the house of Bethel Hurd, in 1805.11

HAMILTON—was formed from Paris, (Oneida Co.,) March 5, 1795, and was named from Alexander Hamilton. Eaton, Lebanon, and Madison were taken off in 1807. It lies upon the S. border of the co., between Lebanon and Brookfield. Its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the valleys of Chenango River and its east branch. The soil is a gravelly loam in the valleys and a clayey loam upon the hills. Hamilton,12 (p.v.,) incorp. April 12, 1812, is situated on the Chenango Canal. It contains 4 churches, the Hamilton Academy, the Hamilton Female Seminary, 2 newspaper offices, and a bank. Pop. 1448. The Madison University, located at this place, under the care of the Baptist denomination, was incorp. March 26, 1846. It consists of a grammar school, a collegiate and a theological department. Nine professors are employed, and in 1857 31 theological students, 1234 under-graduates, and 71 grammar school students were in attendance. The libraries connected with the university contain about 8,900 volumes.13 Earlville,14 (p.v.,) on the line of Sherburne, (Chenango co.,) contains 2 churches, and has a pop. Of 441, of which 233 are in this town. Poolville (p.v.) contains 2 churches and about 40 hours, and

1 A silk factory, distillery, tannery, iron foundry, machine shop, gristmill, and sawmill. There were formerly several woolen factories in and near Morrisville, but they have been abandoned.

2  A woolen factory, a tool factory and trip hammer, distillery, tannery, gristmill, and sawmill.

3  Named from John and Matthew Pratt, early settlers.

4  John H. and Benj. Morris settled in the town of 1794; Benj. Morse, Dan'l Alby, Simeon Gillett, Levi Bonny, and Elijah Hayden, in 1795; Jos. Morse, Wm. Mills, Lewis Wilson, Sam'l Sinclair, Humphry Palmer, and ___ McCrellis, in 1796; and Rawon Harmon, in 1797. Thos. Morris, Windsor and Ziba Coman, Constandt, Robert and Cyrus Avery, Jos. French, C. Finney, R. Eldridge, Daniel Halch, and Abiathar Gates were among those who first moved into and settled this town. The first birth was that of Mr. M. S. Morse, Nov. 1, 1793; the first marriage, that of Lewis Wilson and Dorcas Gillett, in 1796; and the first death, that of Simeon Gillett in 1796. Joshua Leland opened the first inn, in 1794, and erected the first saw and grist mills, in 1795. David Gaston kept the first store, in 1804. The first school was taught by Dr. James Pratt, in the winter of 1797-98,--the first month at the house of Joseph Morse, the second near Morrisville, the third near Log City, and the fourth near the residence of Joshua Leland.

5  The cenus reports 9 churches; 3 Bap., 4 M.E., and 2 Cong.

6  Named from Gov. Fenner, of Rhode Island.

7  Among the early settlers were Alpheus Twist and James Munger, from Conn., who located a mi s. of the center, Jonathan Munger and --- Page in the N. part, and Elisha Freeman, Ithuriel Flower, Ames Webster and Amanda Munger in the S. part. The first birth was that of a child of Alpheus Twist; and the first death, that of the wife of Alpheus Twist. Elder Nathan Baker was the first preacher.

8  The census reports 5 churches; 3 M.E., Bap., and Prot. E.

9  Matthew Hallenbeck, Joab Bishop, John C. Paine, and Bailey Carter settled in the town in 1804, and Mitchell Atwood, Wm. Paine, Bethel Hurd, Joseph P. Harrison, and Josiah Purdy in 1805. Ebenezer Hull, Apollos Drake, Elijah and Alfred Brown, Jesse Jerrold, Zaddock Hawks, John Gibson, --- Hunt, David Parker, Philetus Stewart, Calvin Cross, Dr. Smith, Benj. Bonner, Capt. White, and --- Alvord, were also early settlers. The first birth was that of Weston Paine in 1805; and the first death, that of Mrs. Ezra Sexton in 1807. Mitchell Atwood built the first sawmill, in 1806, and Bishop & Hunt the first gristmill, in 1807. J. C. Paine was an early innkeeper.

10  Muller settled on the hill, about 3 mi. W. of Georgetown, erected a large and spacious dwelling, laid out extensive grounds, excavated an artificial pond, and planted great numbers of fruit trees. He attempted the establishment of a village, by erecting 2 storehouses, several dwellings, a blacksmith shop, and a gristmill. It is supposed that he brought with him to town not less than $150,000 and that he carried away not to exceed $1500. When Bonaparte abdicated, Muller returned to France, leaving his wife and children in New York. He afterward returned to dispose of his property here. When he reached Georgetown, his house was stripped of its furniture; weeds covered the gardens, the walks, the roads and fields; his village was forsaken, and the mill deserted. The agent in who charge he had left his property had sold every movable article and deserted the place. Muller sold the property and returned to France; and to this day no one knows who or what he was.

11  There are 3 churches in town; Bap., Presb., and Union.

12  Formerly called "Paynersville."

13  The "Hamilton Theological Seminary" was established in 1820, under the auspices of the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York. In 1834 a collegiate course was instituted, and the seminary assumed the name of the "Hamilton Literary and Theological Seminary;" and in 1846 the insitution was incorporated as the Madison University. The theological department is still under the control of the Baptist Educational Society. The aggregate number of graduates of the theological department is 302, and of the collegiate department 462.

14  Named from Jonas Earl, Canal Commissioner.


p. 392


Hubbardsville1 (p.v.) 20 houses. East Hamilton (p.o.) is a hamlet, and South Hamilton a p.o. The first settlers were John Wells and Abner Nash, from Mass., and Patrick Shields and John Muir, from Scotland, but late from Oneida co. They located upon Chenango, near Earlville, in 1792.2 The first church (Bap) was fromed in 1796.3

LEBANON—was formed from Hamilton, Feb. 6, 1807. It is the central town upon the S. border of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, lying between the Chenango and Otselic Rivers. The summits in the W. part are 500 to 800 ft. above the valleys. The valley of the Chenango River, extending through the E. part, is about 1 mi. wide and is bordered by steep hillsides. The other streams are small brooks. The soil is a yellow loam underlaid by hard pan upon the hills and alluvium in the valleys. Lebanon (p.v.) contains 1 church, a sawmill, tannery, and 25 houses. Smiths Valley4 and Middleport are hamlets. The first settlement was made in 1792, by Enoch Stowell and Jonathan Bates, from Vt.5 There are 4 churches in town.6

LENOX—was formed from Sullivan, March 3, 1809, and a part of Stockbridge was taken off in 1836. It is the N.E. corner of the co. Its surface is level in the N. and moderately hilly in the S. Canastota and Cowaselon Creeks flow through the town. Oneida Creek forms its S. boundary, and Oneida Lake a part of its N. boundary. The Cowaselon Swamp occupies a portion of the N. part. The soil in the N. is alluvium and in the S. a gravelly and clayey loam. In the town are beds of gypsum and of red fossilferous iron ore. Near Cowaselon Creek is a small sulphur spring; and in the marsh near Canastota is a salt spring.7 Oneida (p.v.) is the principal station between Syracuse and Rome, on the N.Y. Central R.R. It is situated on Oneida Creek, and was incorp. June 20, 1848. It contains 5 churches, the Oneida Seminary,8 a newspaper office, and a bank. Pop. 1713. Canastota, (p.v.) incorp. April 28, 1835, is a canal village and a station on the N.Y. Central R.R. It contains 3 churches, a newspaper office, a bank, and a manufactory of astronomical and optical instruments.9  Pop. 1081. Wampsville, (p.v.,) a station on the N.Y. Central R.R., contains 1 church and 25 houses. Pine Bush, (Bennetts Corners p.o.,) Merrelsville, (Cowaselon p.o.,) and Lenox furnace are hamlets. Clockville,10 (p.v.,) contains 2 churches, a woolen factory, 2 flouring mills, and a sawmill. Pop. 279. Quality Hill (Lenox p.o.) is a thickly settled country street near Canastota. Oneida Lake (p.o.) and South Bay are hamlets. Oneida Valley (p.v.) contains 1 church and about 30 houses. Durhamville (p.v.) contains 1034 inhabitants, of whom 234 are in this town;11 the p. office is in Oneida co. The “Oneida Community,” of about 200 persons, organized upon a peculiar religious and social basis, are located upon a farm of 390 acres on Oneida Creek, 3 mi. S. of Oneida.12 The first settlement was made in 1792, by Conrad Klok [sic (Klock)] and his sons Joseph, John, and Conrad.13 The census reports 14 churches in town.14

MADISON—was formed from Hamilton, Feb. 6, 1807. It lies on the E. border of the co., S. of the center. Its surface is a rolling upland. The principal stream is Oriskany Creek. The Madison Reservoir and several smaller ponds of water are in this town. The soil consists of a gravelly loam in the valleys and a clayey loam upon the hills. Madison, (p.v.,) incorp. April 17, 1816, contains 4 churches, and has a population of 315. Bouckville15 (p.v.) contains 1 church and 35 houses, and Solsville (p.v.) 17 houses. The first settlement was made in 1793.16

p. 392 footnotes:


1  Named from Calvin Hubbard.

2  Among the other early settlers were Sam'l and Elisha Payne, who located upon the present site of Hamilton Village in 1794. Theophilus and Benj. Pierce, Jonathan Olmsted, Daniel Smith, and Nathan Foster settled in the town in 1795, and Thomas Greenly in 1796.

3  The census reports 10 churches in town; 4 M.E., 2 Bap., 2 Cong., Prot. E., and Univ.

4  Named from Justice Smith, a former resident.

5  Among the early settlers were John, Charles, James, and Isaac Campbell, Thos. Hueston, Lent Bradley, Solomon Jones, Abram Webster, Dan'l Stowell, David Harson, --- Rider, Josh. Smith, Dea. Tinny, David Shapley, Malchiah Hatch, Dr. Merrick, Elihu Bosworth, Benj. Hewes, and Capt. Moore. Elisha Wheeler built the first sawmill, and Daniel Wheeler the first gristmill; Israel Thayer kept the first store. The first school was taught by Widow Nancy Campbell, a lady about 70 years of age.

6  Bap., Cong., M. E. and Univ.

7  At this spring a boring was once made 196 ft. deep. At that depth the auger broke, and the work was abandoned. The strength of the water at the surace was 2 1/20 by the instrument used, and it was increased to 90.--Geol. N.Y., III, p. 273.

8  The school was opened Sept.29, 1858, with about 200 pupils and 5 male and 4 female teachers.

9  Established by Chas. A. Spencer. The microscopes and other instruments made here have acquired merited celebrity. The equatorial telescope at Hamilton College was made here.

10 Named from Conrad Klock (sic Klock), who settled near this place.

11  See page 470. [from p. 470: Durhamville, (p.v.,) on the w. border, partly in Madison Co., contains 2 churches, a glass factory, foundery, tannery, and 1,034 inhabitants.]

12  This community was organized in 1847, under John H. Noyes, with whom their peculiar religions and social tenets mostly originated. They form a general community, holding a common interest in all things. The relation of the sexes is placed, not, like that of civilized society, on the basis of law and constraint, neither on the opoosite one of mere freedom, but on that of "inspiration." They are principally engaged in gardening, the nursery business, milling, and the manufacture of steel traps, sewing silk, traveling bags, cravats, and palmleaf hats. The Circular, a weekly paper, is published by the Communists.

13  The Forbeses, Buyas (sic Buyeas) and Snyders were the early settlers.

14  M.E., 5 Presb., 2 Bap., Cong. and R.C.

15  Names from Gov. Bouck; formerly called "Johnsville."

16  Samuel and Francis Clemens, Stephen F. Blackstone, John Niles, Seth Snow and his son Seth, Wm. and David Blair, James Collister, Daniel Perkins, Henry W. and Israel Bond, Elijah Blodget, Amos and Jesse Maynard, and Joel Crawford, settled in the town in 1793; Gen. Erastus Cleveland, Thos. Mellen, Abiel Hatch, Jas. McClenathan, Geo., Chas., and Job Peckhand, Benj. Simmonds, Sylvester Woodward, Elijah Thompson, Sam'l Jones, Jas. and Alex. White, Luther, Abiel, and Ephraim Clough, and Jonathan Sloan, were also early settlers. The first births in town were those of Marcena Collisteer and Stephen Blackstone, both in 1794. Gen. Cleveland built the first gristmill and kept the first store. Henry W. Bond build the first sawmill, in 1793. Sam'l Clemens was an early innkeeper.


p. 393


The first church (Cong.) was organized in 1795, and the Rev. Ezra Woodworth was the first pastor.1

NELSON—was formed from Cazenovia, March 13, 1807. It is an interior town, lying s.w. of the center of the co. Its surface consists of a rolling upland. The principal stream is Chittenango Creek. The Erieville and Eaton reservoirs are in this town. The soil is generally a gravelly loam. Erieville (p.v.) contains 3 churches and 191 inhabitants, and Nelson Flats (Nelson p.o) 2 churches and 146 inhabitants. The first settlement was made in 1794, by Asa and Jedediah Jackson.2 The census reports 5 churches in town.3

SMITHFIELD—was formed from Cazenovia, March 13, 1807. Fenner was taken off in 1823, and a part of Stockbridge in 1836. It is an interior town, lying N. of the center of the co. Its surface is a hilly and rolling upland. The principal streams are Cowaselon and Oneida Creeks. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. Limestone and gypsum are obtained in the N.E. corner. Near Siloam is a small sulphur spring. Peterboro,4 (p.v.,) on Oneida Creek, near the center, contains 3 churches and the Peterboro Academy. Pop. 350. Siloam (p.o.) is a hamlet. The first settler was Jasper Alesworth, in 1795.5 Judge Green C. Bronson resided in this town for several years; and Hon. Gerrit Smith now resides in Peterboro. In 1858, Wm. Evans, of Boston, donated to this town the sum of $10,000, to be invested, and the proceeds devoted to the relief and support of the destitute and needy.6 There are 3 churches in town.7

STOCKBRIDGE—named from the Stockbridge Indians—was formed from Vernon and Augusta (Oneida co.) and Smithfield and Lenox, May 20, 1836. It lies upon the E. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the deep valley of Oneida Creek, which extends in a N. and S. direction through near the center of the town. The summits of the hills are 500 to 80 ft. above the valley. The falls of Oneida Creek consists of a succession of rapids and low falls, affording numerous valuable mill sites.8 Oriskany Creek takes its rise in the S. part. The soil is a clayey and gravelly loam. Limestone is extensively quarried from the ledges that crop out upon the hillsides. Hyrdraulic limestone is also quarried near the falls of Oneida Creek. Gypsum is obtained near Cooks Corners. In this town are an ancient burials place and the ruins of an old fortification.9 Munnsville,10 (p.v.,) on Oneida Creek, contains 1 church and several manufactories.11 Pop. 287. Knoxville12 (Stockbridge p.o.) contains 3 churches, and has a population of 138. Cooks Corners (p.v.) contains 1 church, a plaster mill, and abut 15 houses. The first settlement was made in 1791.13 A mission church was erected on the Indian Reservation, near Cooks Corners, about 1800.14

SULLIVAN15—was formed from Cazenovia, Feb. 22, 1803, and Lenox was taken off in 1809. It is the n.w. corner town of the co. Its surface is level in the N. and rolling in the S. The Cowaselon Swamp extends across the town from Chittenango Creek to the line of Lenox. South of the swamp is the Vlaie, or natural meadow.16 Chittenango Creek flows through the town and


1  There are 6 churches in town; 2 M.E., Bap., Cong., Friends, and Univ.

2  Joseph Yaw, Ebenezer Lyon, Sam'l and Chas. Swift, Jonathan Buell, Samuel Kinney, and --- Mitchell settled in the town in 1794; Oliver Stone and James Hinman, in 1795; Joshua Wells, David Wellington, Israel Patterson, Rich. Karley, Dan'l Adams, Horatio Simms, Abner Camp, and Lemuel and Eldad Richardson, in 1796. The first birth was that of Palmer Wells, in 1796; and the first death, that of Mrs. Bishop about 1800. Jedediah Jackson kept the first inn, in 1794; Jeremiah Clark build the first sawmill, about 1800, and Oliver Pool the first grismill. Daniel Russell was the first storekeeper. Dea. Dunham was one of the earliest schoolteachers.

3 2 M. E. Bap., Cong., and Univ.

4  Named from Peter Smith.

5  Oliver Trumbull settled in the town the same year. Peter Smith was the proprietor of the soil, and settled at Peterboro at an early day. Among the early settlers were families named Cleveland, Coon, Babcock, Taylor, Messenger, Stone, Rich, Loveland, Loomis, Merrill, Spencer, Bump, Northrup, Lathrop, Soper, Shipman, Howard, Chaffer, Lyons, Moody, Spring, Myers, Brown, Austin, and Wright. Peter Smith built the first saw and grist mill. Jas. Livingston kep the first store, and Lewis Cook kept the first inn. Tabitha Havens taught the first school, in 1801.

6  The provisions of the benefaction are, that the amount shall be loaned in sums of not over $1000 each, upon good bond and mortgage security; and that as soon after 1862 as the accumulated interest amounts to a sufficient sum, a farm, of not less than 50 acres, shall be bought, and suitable buildings erected thereon to be used as a home for the destitute.

7  Bap., Presb., and Free.

8  About 1/2 mi. E. of Munnsville, near the center of the town, are several caves, in limestone, which have been explored but partially on account of noxious gases. In the rock that forms the bed of the steam are depressions resembling the fooprints of men, cattle, and horses.

9  The burial place is on the hillside, about 1 mi. S.E. of Munnsville. A small bone image of a woman, iron and steel axes, gun barrels and fragments of gun locks, brass kettles, and tobacco pipes have been found. The axes are hatchet shaped, and are marked under the eye with three stars. The ruins of the fortification are in the S.W. part of the town.

10  Named from Asa Munn, the first storekeeper of the town.

11  A woolen factory, a furnace, trip hammer and edge-tool factory, a sawmill, planing mill, and sash factory, and a gristmill.

12  Named from Herman Knox, an early resident.

13  Among the early settlers were Oliver Steward, Nathan, Calvin, Barney, John, and Alfred Edson, Wm., Elijah, and Joseph Devine, Wm. Sloan, Benajah House, Annos Bridge, Jas. Tafft, Aaron, Jairus, and Matthew Rankin, Jonathan Snow, Isaac Chadwick, Talcott Divan, Watrons Graves, and Daniel Thurston. These settlers all located in the S.E. part of the yown. The first marriage was that of John Devine and Polly Edson in 1793; and their first death, that of Widow Anna Hall, in 1795. The first saw and grist mills were built by the Stockbridge Indians on their reservation, about 1794. The first school was taught by Edward Foster, in 1797.

14  The census reports 5 churches; 2 Cong., Bap., M.E., and Univ.

15  Named from Gen. John Sullivan.

16  The Vlaie is covered to the depth of several feet with muck or peat underlaid by marl. It is destitute of timber, and supports a rank growth of ferns and weeds. "A ditch cut by the side of the road shows vertical stumps 3 feet below the surface, and then a small growth near the surface; so that it would appear that two forests have existed there." This land was originally covered with water; but it is now partially drained by a ditch dug by the State.


p. 394


forms a part of the its W. boundary. The Canastota and Cowaselon Creeks unite in the swamp and flow in an artificial channel to the lake. These streams afford numerous valuable mill privileges. On the Canaseraga, near Perryville, is a waterfall 120 feet in height. Black Creek is a tributary of the Chittenango. Gypsum is found in numerous localities and is extensively quarried.1 Waterlime is also obtained in the S. part.2 Marl and peat abound in the swampy regions. There are several mineral springs in town, the principal of which are the “WhiteSulphur Spring” and the “Yates Spring.” The former—known as Chittenango Springs—is fitted up for the reception of visitors; and the waters of both are celebrated for the medicinal properties.3 The soil in the N. is a clayey locam alternating with much and marl, and in the S. it is a gravelly loam. Chittenango (p.v.,) on Chittenango Creek, was incorp. March 15, 1842. It contains 3 churches, the Yates Polytechnic Institute, a bank, a woolen factory, gristmill, and tannery. Pop. 916. Perryville4 (p.v.) is partly in this town. Canaseraga (Sullivan p.o) contains 1 church and 25 houses, and Bridgeport (p.v.) 1 church and about 35 houses. Lakeport is a p.o. The first settlement was made in 1790, by squatters from the Mohawk Valley.5 The census reports 9 churches.6

1  Gypsum is said to have been quarried here in 1800.

2  In this town is a bed of waterlime, --the firdst discovered in the State. The material was first quarried and burned for quicklime to be used on the canal; but it was found that it would not slack. Experiments were then made, and the material was discovered to be hydraulic lime.

3 Following is a statement of an analysis of a pint of water from each of these springs. White Sulphur Spring. Yates Spring (omitted)

4  See page 391. [Fenner.]

5  These squatters were James and Joseph Pickard, Jacob, David, and Han-Yost Schuyler, Jacob Seeber, Gerrett and Geo. Van Slycke, John Polsey, and John Freemyer. They settled on the Indian Reservation near Canaseraga. The Indians complained to the Governor of their intrustion, and they were ordered to remove. They neglected to do so; and in 1791, Col. Colbraith, the sheriff of Montgomery Co., was sent with a posse of 60 men to dislodge them. They still refused; and their movables were taken from their dwellings and their houses burned. They then removed to the neighborhood of Chittenango and settled on lands that the State had lately acquired of the Indians. John G. Mohyer, John Walroth, Capt. Timothy Brown, Solomon, Joseph, and David Beebe, Col. Zebulon Douglas, John Mathews, Philip Daharsh, Nicholas Pickard, Ovid Weldon, Peter Dygart, John Keller, John Sower, Wm. Miles, David Burton, Timothy Freeman, and Peter Ehle settled in the town shortly after. The first birth was that of Peggy Schuyler, in 1791; and the first death, that of a child of David Freemyer. John G. Moyer built the first saw and gristmill, and Jacob Schuyler kept the first inn.

6  3 Bap., 2 M.E., Cong. Wes. Meth., Ref. Prot. D., and Union.

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